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Prevalence of sacral dysmorphia in a prospective trauma population: Implications for a "safe" surgical corridor for sacro-iliac screw placement.

Hasenboehler EA, Stahel PF, Williams A, Smith WR, Newman JT, Symonds DL, Morgan SJ - Patient Saf Surg (2011)

Bottom Line: The prevalence of sacral dysmorphia was not significantly different between male and female patients (12.2% vs. 19.2%; P = 0.069).In contrast, significant gender-related differences were detected with regard to radiographic analysis of surgical corridors for SI-screw placement, with female trauma patients (n = 99) having significantly narrower corridors at S1 and S2 in all evaluated planes (axial, coronal, sagittal), compared to male counterparts (n = 245; P < 0.01).In addition, the mean S2 body height was higher in dysmorphic compared to normal sacra, albeit without statistical significance (P = 0.06), implying S2 as a safe surgical corridor of choice in patients with sacral dysmorphia.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Denver Health Medical Center, University of Colorado Denver, School of Medicine, 777 Bannock Street, Denver, CO 80204, USA. philip.stahel@dhha.org.

ABSTRACT

Background: Percutaneous sacro-iliac (SI) screw fixation represents a widely used technique in the management of unstable posterior pelvic ring injuries and sacral fractures. The misplacement of SI-screws under fluoroscopic guidance represents a critical complication for these patients. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of sacral dysmorphia and the radiographic anatomy of surgical S1 and S2 corridors in a representative trauma population.

Methods: Prospective observational cohort study on a consecutive series of 344 skeletally mature trauma patients of both genders enrolled between January 1, 2007, to September 30, 2007, at a single academic level 1 trauma center. Inclusion criteria included a pelvic CT scan as part of the initial diagnostic trauma work-up. The prevalence of sacral dysmorphia was determined by plain radiographic pelvic films and CT scan analysis. The anatomy of sacral corridors was analyzed on 3 mm reconstruction sections derived from multislice CT scan, in the axial, coronal, and sagittal plane. "Safe" potential surgical corridors at S1 and S2 were calculated based on these measurements.

Results: Radiographic evidence of sacral dysmorphia was detected in 49 patients (14.5%). The prevalence of sacral dysmorphia was not significantly different between male and female patients (12.2% vs. 19.2%; P = 0.069). In contrast, significant gender-related differences were detected with regard to radiographic analysis of surgical corridors for SI-screw placement, with female trauma patients (n = 99) having significantly narrower corridors at S1 and S2 in all evaluated planes (axial, coronal, sagittal), compared to male counterparts (n = 245; P < 0.01). In addition, the mean S2 body height was higher in dysmorphic compared to normal sacra, albeit without statistical significance (P = 0.06), implying S2 as a safe surgical corridor of choice in patients with sacral dysmorphia.

Conclusions: These findings emphasize a high prevalence of sacral dysmorphia in a representative trauma population and imply a higher risk of SI-screw misplacement in female patients. Preoperative planning for percutaneous SI-screw fixation for unstable pelvic and sacral fractures must include a detailed CT scan analysis to determine the safety of surgical corridors.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Example of a "safe surgical corridor" for SI-screw trajectories in a normal (panel A) and dysmorphic sacrum (panel B). Based on the vestibular concept described by Carlson et al. [29], the entry point was placed perpendicular to the narrowest point at the level of the sacral foramen, the so-called "vestibule". See text for details and explanations.
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Figure 2: Example of a "safe surgical corridor" for SI-screw trajectories in a normal (panel A) and dysmorphic sacrum (panel B). Based on the vestibular concept described by Carlson et al. [29], the entry point was placed perpendicular to the narrowest point at the level of the sacral foramen, the so-called "vestibule". See text for details and explanations.

Mentions: The pCT measurements were furthermore compared between the groups with "normal" (n = 295) versus "dysmorphic" (n = 49) sacral morphology (table 2). All measurements on the S1 vertebral body, with according corridors and angles, were significantly diminished in the sacral dysmorphia group, compared to the cohort with normal sacral morphology (table 2). A case example depicting the anatomic variation with a steeper first alar slope and narrower surgical canal in a patient with sacral dysmorphia is shown in Figure 2.


Prevalence of sacral dysmorphia in a prospective trauma population: Implications for a "safe" surgical corridor for sacro-iliac screw placement.

Hasenboehler EA, Stahel PF, Williams A, Smith WR, Newman JT, Symonds DL, Morgan SJ - Patient Saf Surg (2011)

Example of a "safe surgical corridor" for SI-screw trajectories in a normal (panel A) and dysmorphic sacrum (panel B). Based on the vestibular concept described by Carlson et al. [29], the entry point was placed perpendicular to the narrowest point at the level of the sacral foramen, the so-called "vestibule". See text for details and explanations.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3105956&req=5

Figure 2: Example of a "safe surgical corridor" for SI-screw trajectories in a normal (panel A) and dysmorphic sacrum (panel B). Based on the vestibular concept described by Carlson et al. [29], the entry point was placed perpendicular to the narrowest point at the level of the sacral foramen, the so-called "vestibule". See text for details and explanations.
Mentions: The pCT measurements were furthermore compared between the groups with "normal" (n = 295) versus "dysmorphic" (n = 49) sacral morphology (table 2). All measurements on the S1 vertebral body, with according corridors and angles, were significantly diminished in the sacral dysmorphia group, compared to the cohort with normal sacral morphology (table 2). A case example depicting the anatomic variation with a steeper first alar slope and narrower surgical canal in a patient with sacral dysmorphia is shown in Figure 2.

Bottom Line: The prevalence of sacral dysmorphia was not significantly different between male and female patients (12.2% vs. 19.2%; P = 0.069).In contrast, significant gender-related differences were detected with regard to radiographic analysis of surgical corridors for SI-screw placement, with female trauma patients (n = 99) having significantly narrower corridors at S1 and S2 in all evaluated planes (axial, coronal, sagittal), compared to male counterparts (n = 245; P < 0.01).In addition, the mean S2 body height was higher in dysmorphic compared to normal sacra, albeit without statistical significance (P = 0.06), implying S2 as a safe surgical corridor of choice in patients with sacral dysmorphia.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Denver Health Medical Center, University of Colorado Denver, School of Medicine, 777 Bannock Street, Denver, CO 80204, USA. philip.stahel@dhha.org.

ABSTRACT

Background: Percutaneous sacro-iliac (SI) screw fixation represents a widely used technique in the management of unstable posterior pelvic ring injuries and sacral fractures. The misplacement of SI-screws under fluoroscopic guidance represents a critical complication for these patients. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of sacral dysmorphia and the radiographic anatomy of surgical S1 and S2 corridors in a representative trauma population.

Methods: Prospective observational cohort study on a consecutive series of 344 skeletally mature trauma patients of both genders enrolled between January 1, 2007, to September 30, 2007, at a single academic level 1 trauma center. Inclusion criteria included a pelvic CT scan as part of the initial diagnostic trauma work-up. The prevalence of sacral dysmorphia was determined by plain radiographic pelvic films and CT scan analysis. The anatomy of sacral corridors was analyzed on 3 mm reconstruction sections derived from multislice CT scan, in the axial, coronal, and sagittal plane. "Safe" potential surgical corridors at S1 and S2 were calculated based on these measurements.

Results: Radiographic evidence of sacral dysmorphia was detected in 49 patients (14.5%). The prevalence of sacral dysmorphia was not significantly different between male and female patients (12.2% vs. 19.2%; P = 0.069). In contrast, significant gender-related differences were detected with regard to radiographic analysis of surgical corridors for SI-screw placement, with female trauma patients (n = 99) having significantly narrower corridors at S1 and S2 in all evaluated planes (axial, coronal, sagittal), compared to male counterparts (n = 245; P < 0.01). In addition, the mean S2 body height was higher in dysmorphic compared to normal sacra, albeit without statistical significance (P = 0.06), implying S2 as a safe surgical corridor of choice in patients with sacral dysmorphia.

Conclusions: These findings emphasize a high prevalence of sacral dysmorphia in a representative trauma population and imply a higher risk of SI-screw misplacement in female patients. Preoperative planning for percutaneous SI-screw fixation for unstable pelvic and sacral fractures must include a detailed CT scan analysis to determine the safety of surgical corridors.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus