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Where do new medicines come from?

Liu D - CBE Life Sci Educ (2011)

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, MD 20815, USA. dliu@hhmi.org

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The research enterprise is confusing to most people, even for advanced students... How do results get transferred to medical advances? Toto talks about his research in his 2009 HHMI Holiday Lectures (www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/biodiversity/lectures.html) and has developed a website aimed at providing teachers and students with information about cone snails (www.theconesnail.com)... Currently a number of other peptide toxins derived from cone snails are in development to treat Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, heart disease, and pain... The animation found at www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/biodiversity/2009_prialt_blocks_motor.html shows the physiological action of ω-conotoxin... By the 1950s and 1960s, research had associated atherosclerosis with heart disease and established that artery-clogging plaques were composed largely of cholesterol... It was also known that HMG-CoA reductase was the rate-limiting enzyme on the path to making cholesterol... By the early 1970s, drug company employee Akira Endo was screening bacterial and fungal cultures to find inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase... He soon found a candidate, the first member of the class now known as statins... They were also interested in the basic research problem of how insoluble cholesterol could be delivered to cells—“the delivery problem. ” I recommend visiting their Nobel Prize webpages and in particular reading the transcript of their Nobel lecture (http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1985/goldstein-lecture.html)... Brown and Goldstein discovered the answer to the delivery problem: Cells had receptors on their surface that bound cholesterol-rich LDL particles... Once separated from the LDL, the receptor could be recycled to the cell surface... The simple animation found on the W.H... Freeman website (http://bcs.whfreeman.com/thelifewire/content/chp05/0502003.html) illustrates endocytosis and recycling of LDL receptors, but not feedback regulation... Lowering the cholesterol content in liver cells could up-regulate LDL receptors, providing more receptors for taking LDL out of the bloodstream, thus lowering serum cholesterol levels and inhibiting plaque formation.

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The iBioSeminars website has dozens of introductory and research-level seminars by research scientists, including Toto Olivera, pictured here.
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Figure 2: The iBioSeminars website has dozens of introductory and research-level seminars by research scientists, including Toto Olivera, pictured here.

Mentions: Baldomero “Toto” Olivera has done pioneering research on cone snail venoms, motivated by the triple purpose of learning new things about how the nervous system works, developing new research tools, and discovering new medicines. Toto talks about his research in his 2009 HHMI Holiday Lectures (www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/biodiversity/lectures.html) and has developed a website aimed at providing teachers and students with information about cone snails (www.theconesnail.com). Each cone snail species mixes a unique cocktail of up to 200 peptide toxins. Given that there are hundreds of cone snail species, there are estimated to be tens of thousands of peptides targeting a variety of cellular targets such as ion channels, transmitter vesicles, and receptor complexes. In addition to Toto's Holiday Lectures, aimed at a high school audience, you can view a more technical version of the story delivered by Toto on Ron Vale's iBioSeminars website (www.ibioseminars.org/lectures/chemicalbiologybiophysics/baldomero-olivera.html) (Figure 2).


Where do new medicines come from?

Liu D - CBE Life Sci Educ (2011)

The iBioSeminars website has dozens of introductory and research-level seminars by research scientists, including Toto Olivera, pictured here.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3105917&req=5

Figure 2: The iBioSeminars website has dozens of introductory and research-level seminars by research scientists, including Toto Olivera, pictured here.
Mentions: Baldomero “Toto” Olivera has done pioneering research on cone snail venoms, motivated by the triple purpose of learning new things about how the nervous system works, developing new research tools, and discovering new medicines. Toto talks about his research in his 2009 HHMI Holiday Lectures (www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/biodiversity/lectures.html) and has developed a website aimed at providing teachers and students with information about cone snails (www.theconesnail.com). Each cone snail species mixes a unique cocktail of up to 200 peptide toxins. Given that there are hundreds of cone snail species, there are estimated to be tens of thousands of peptides targeting a variety of cellular targets such as ion channels, transmitter vesicles, and receptor complexes. In addition to Toto's Holiday Lectures, aimed at a high school audience, you can view a more technical version of the story delivered by Toto on Ron Vale's iBioSeminars website (www.ibioseminars.org/lectures/chemicalbiologybiophysics/baldomero-olivera.html) (Figure 2).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, MD 20815, USA. dliu@hhmi.org

AUTOMATICALLY GENERATED EXCERPT
Please rate it.

The research enterprise is confusing to most people, even for advanced students... How do results get transferred to medical advances? Toto talks about his research in his 2009 HHMI Holiday Lectures (www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/biodiversity/lectures.html) and has developed a website aimed at providing teachers and students with information about cone snails (www.theconesnail.com)... Currently a number of other peptide toxins derived from cone snails are in development to treat Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, heart disease, and pain... The animation found at www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/biodiversity/2009_prialt_blocks_motor.html shows the physiological action of ω-conotoxin... By the 1950s and 1960s, research had associated atherosclerosis with heart disease and established that artery-clogging plaques were composed largely of cholesterol... It was also known that HMG-CoA reductase was the rate-limiting enzyme on the path to making cholesterol... By the early 1970s, drug company employee Akira Endo was screening bacterial and fungal cultures to find inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase... He soon found a candidate, the first member of the class now known as statins... They were also interested in the basic research problem of how insoluble cholesterol could be delivered to cells—“the delivery problem. ” I recommend visiting their Nobel Prize webpages and in particular reading the transcript of their Nobel lecture (http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1985/goldstein-lecture.html)... Brown and Goldstein discovered the answer to the delivery problem: Cells had receptors on their surface that bound cholesterol-rich LDL particles... Once separated from the LDL, the receptor could be recycled to the cell surface... The simple animation found on the W.H... Freeman website (http://bcs.whfreeman.com/thelifewire/content/chp05/0502003.html) illustrates endocytosis and recycling of LDL receptors, but not feedback regulation... Lowering the cholesterol content in liver cells could up-regulate LDL receptors, providing more receptors for taking LDL out of the bloodstream, thus lowering serum cholesterol levels and inhibiting plaque formation.

Show MeSH