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Interconnect-free parallel logic circuits in a single mechanical resonator.

Mahboob I, Flurin E, Nishiguchi K, Fujiwara A, Yamaguchi H - Nat Commun (2011)

Bottom Line: This has resulted in processors in which billions of transistors are physically interconnected, which limits integration densities, gives rise to huge power consumption and restricts processing speeds.A method to eliminate wiring amongst transistors by condensing Boolean logic into a single active element is thus highly desirable.Moreover, the mechanical logic gates and circuits can be executed simultaneously, giving rise to the prospect of a parallel logic processor in just a single mechanical resonator.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: NTT Basic Research Laboratories, NTT Corporation, Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa 243-0198, Japan. imran@will.brl.ntt.co.jp

ABSTRACT
In conventional computers, wiring between transistors is required to enable the execution of Boolean logic functions. This has resulted in processors in which billions of transistors are physically interconnected, which limits integration densities, gives rise to huge power consumption and restricts processing speeds. A method to eliminate wiring amongst transistors by condensing Boolean logic into a single active element is thus highly desirable. Here, we demonstrate a novel logic architecture using only a single electromechanical parametric resonator into which multiple channels of binary information are encoded as mechanical oscillations at different frequencies. The parametric resonator can mix these channels, resulting in new mechanical oscillation states that enable the construction of AND, OR and XOR logic gates as well as multibit logic circuits. Moreover, the mechanical logic gates and circuits can be executed simultaneously, giving rise to the prospect of a parallel logic processor in just a single mechanical resonator.

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The electromechanical parametric resonator.(a) A schematic of the experimental setup where the mechanical resonator is in the geometry of a doubly clamped beam (grey) with a length, width and thickness of 260, 84, and 1.35 μm, respectively, and it hosts an out-of-plane oscillation mode. The mechanical oscillator has Schottky Au-electrodes (orange) located above both clamping points, below which a 2DEG is located (red). Application of a.c. bias to either the 2DEG or the Au-electrodes can trigger both harmonic and parametric resonances where the mechanical motion is monitored by detecting in either a lock-in amplifier or a spectrum analyser the motion-induced piezovoltage, which is amplified by an on-chip amplifier (red triangle) and a room temperature transimpedance amplifier (black triangle). In all cases, the signals s1 and s2 are applied to the large Au-electrode with a 50 μVrms actuation amplitude and the pumps pA, pB and pC are applied to the 2DEG with 40 mVrms actuation amplitude where the reference r is used for the lock-in measurements. (b) A false-colour scanning electron microscopic image of the electromechanical resonator where the pump (logic input), signal excitation (to functionalize logic operations) and the idler (logic output) are marked. (c) The electromechanical resonance (dots) measured via the lock-in amplifier and fitted with a harmonic oscillator response (line).
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f1: The electromechanical parametric resonator.(a) A schematic of the experimental setup where the mechanical resonator is in the geometry of a doubly clamped beam (grey) with a length, width and thickness of 260, 84, and 1.35 μm, respectively, and it hosts an out-of-plane oscillation mode. The mechanical oscillator has Schottky Au-electrodes (orange) located above both clamping points, below which a 2DEG is located (red). Application of a.c. bias to either the 2DEG or the Au-electrodes can trigger both harmonic and parametric resonances where the mechanical motion is monitored by detecting in either a lock-in amplifier or a spectrum analyser the motion-induced piezovoltage, which is amplified by an on-chip amplifier (red triangle) and a room temperature transimpedance amplifier (black triangle). In all cases, the signals s1 and s2 are applied to the large Au-electrode with a 50 μVrms actuation amplitude and the pumps pA, pB and pC are applied to the 2DEG with 40 mVrms actuation amplitude where the reference r is used for the lock-in measurements. (b) A false-colour scanning electron microscopic image of the electromechanical resonator where the pump (logic input), signal excitation (to functionalize logic operations) and the idler (logic output) are marked. (c) The electromechanical resonance (dots) measured via the lock-in amplifier and fitted with a harmonic oscillator response (line).

Mentions: The GaAs/AlGaAs-based mechanical resonator used in this study is shown and described in Figures 1a and 1b, and has a fundamental mode at f0=ω0/2π=155,702 Hz with a quality factor Q=140,000 (Fig. 1c and Methods)7. The piezoelectric effect in the GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure can enable electrical actuation and detection of mechanical motion as well as the parametric amplification via force constant modulation8910.


Interconnect-free parallel logic circuits in a single mechanical resonator.

Mahboob I, Flurin E, Nishiguchi K, Fujiwara A, Yamaguchi H - Nat Commun (2011)

The electromechanical parametric resonator.(a) A schematic of the experimental setup where the mechanical resonator is in the geometry of a doubly clamped beam (grey) with a length, width and thickness of 260, 84, and 1.35 μm, respectively, and it hosts an out-of-plane oscillation mode. The mechanical oscillator has Schottky Au-electrodes (orange) located above both clamping points, below which a 2DEG is located (red). Application of a.c. bias to either the 2DEG or the Au-electrodes can trigger both harmonic and parametric resonances where the mechanical motion is monitored by detecting in either a lock-in amplifier or a spectrum analyser the motion-induced piezovoltage, which is amplified by an on-chip amplifier (red triangle) and a room temperature transimpedance amplifier (black triangle). In all cases, the signals s1 and s2 are applied to the large Au-electrode with a 50 μVrms actuation amplitude and the pumps pA, pB and pC are applied to the 2DEG with 40 mVrms actuation amplitude where the reference r is used for the lock-in measurements. (b) A false-colour scanning electron microscopic image of the electromechanical resonator where the pump (logic input), signal excitation (to functionalize logic operations) and the idler (logic output) are marked. (c) The electromechanical resonance (dots) measured via the lock-in amplifier and fitted with a harmonic oscillator response (line).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3105311&req=5

f1: The electromechanical parametric resonator.(a) A schematic of the experimental setup where the mechanical resonator is in the geometry of a doubly clamped beam (grey) with a length, width and thickness of 260, 84, and 1.35 μm, respectively, and it hosts an out-of-plane oscillation mode. The mechanical oscillator has Schottky Au-electrodes (orange) located above both clamping points, below which a 2DEG is located (red). Application of a.c. bias to either the 2DEG or the Au-electrodes can trigger both harmonic and parametric resonances where the mechanical motion is monitored by detecting in either a lock-in amplifier or a spectrum analyser the motion-induced piezovoltage, which is amplified by an on-chip amplifier (red triangle) and a room temperature transimpedance amplifier (black triangle). In all cases, the signals s1 and s2 are applied to the large Au-electrode with a 50 μVrms actuation amplitude and the pumps pA, pB and pC are applied to the 2DEG with 40 mVrms actuation amplitude where the reference r is used for the lock-in measurements. (b) A false-colour scanning electron microscopic image of the electromechanical resonator where the pump (logic input), signal excitation (to functionalize logic operations) and the idler (logic output) are marked. (c) The electromechanical resonance (dots) measured via the lock-in amplifier and fitted with a harmonic oscillator response (line).
Mentions: The GaAs/AlGaAs-based mechanical resonator used in this study is shown and described in Figures 1a and 1b, and has a fundamental mode at f0=ω0/2π=155,702 Hz with a quality factor Q=140,000 (Fig. 1c and Methods)7. The piezoelectric effect in the GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure can enable electrical actuation and detection of mechanical motion as well as the parametric amplification via force constant modulation8910.

Bottom Line: This has resulted in processors in which billions of transistors are physically interconnected, which limits integration densities, gives rise to huge power consumption and restricts processing speeds.A method to eliminate wiring amongst transistors by condensing Boolean logic into a single active element is thus highly desirable.Moreover, the mechanical logic gates and circuits can be executed simultaneously, giving rise to the prospect of a parallel logic processor in just a single mechanical resonator.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: NTT Basic Research Laboratories, NTT Corporation, Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa 243-0198, Japan. imran@will.brl.ntt.co.jp

ABSTRACT
In conventional computers, wiring between transistors is required to enable the execution of Boolean logic functions. This has resulted in processors in which billions of transistors are physically interconnected, which limits integration densities, gives rise to huge power consumption and restricts processing speeds. A method to eliminate wiring amongst transistors by condensing Boolean logic into a single active element is thus highly desirable. Here, we demonstrate a novel logic architecture using only a single electromechanical parametric resonator into which multiple channels of binary information are encoded as mechanical oscillations at different frequencies. The parametric resonator can mix these channels, resulting in new mechanical oscillation states that enable the construction of AND, OR and XOR logic gates as well as multibit logic circuits. Moreover, the mechanical logic gates and circuits can be executed simultaneously, giving rise to the prospect of a parallel logic processor in just a single mechanical resonator.

Show MeSH