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Cryptic prophages help bacteria cope with adverse environments.

Wang X, Kim Y, Ma Q, Hong SH, Pokusaeva K, Sturino JM, Wood TK - Nat Commun (2010)

Bottom Line: We find that cryptic prophages contribute significantly to resistance to sub-lethal concentrations of quinolone and β-lactam antibiotics primarily through proteins that inhibit cell division (for example, KilR of rac and DicB of Qin).Moreover, the prophages are beneficial for withstanding osmotic, oxidative and acid stresses, for increasing growth, and for influencing biofilm formation.Therefore, cryptic prophages provide multiple benefits to the host for surviving adverse environmental conditions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A & M University, 220 Jack E. Brown Building, College Station, Texas 77843-3122, USA.

ABSTRACT
Phages are the most abundant entity in the biosphere and outnumber bacteria by a factor of 10. Phage DNA may also constitute 20% of bacterial genomes; however, its role is ill defined. Here, we explore the impact of cryptic prophages on cell physiology by precisely deleting all nine prophage elements (166 kbp) using Escherichia coli. We find that cryptic prophages contribute significantly to resistance to sub-lethal concentrations of quinolone and β-lactam antibiotics primarily through proteins that inhibit cell division (for example, KilR of rac and DicB of Qin). Moreover, the prophages are beneficial for withstanding osmotic, oxidative and acid stresses, for increasing growth, and for influencing biofilm formation. Prophage CPS-53 proteins YfdK, YfdO and YfdS enhanced resistance to oxidative stress, prophages e14, CPS-53 and CP4-57 increased resistance to acid, and e14 and rac proteins increased early biofilm formation. Therefore, cryptic prophages provide multiple benefits to the host for surviving adverse environmental conditions.

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Individual prophages affect cell viability with stress and biofilm formation.Survival for the nine single-prophage deletion strains (marked with each prophage name) and the multiple prophage-deletion strain (Δ9) after challenging with (a) nalidixic acid (2 μg ml−1 for 12 h), (b) azlocillin (4 μg ml−1 for 12 h), (c) osmotic stress (6% NaCl for 12 h), (d) oxidative stress (30 mM H2O2 for 15 min), (e) acid stress (pH 2.5 for 30 min) and (f) heat stress (65 °C for 10 min). (g) Survival for the 15 single-gene deletion strains of CPS-53 (marked with each gene deletion) and the multiple prophage-deletion strain (Δ9) after challenging with oxidative stress (30 mM H2O2 for 15 min). (h) Normalized biofilm formation in 96-well polystyrene plates in M9C medium after 8 h at 30 °C. Error bars indicate s.d. values (n=4). Significant changes are marked with an asterisk for P<0.05.
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f4: Individual prophages affect cell viability with stress and biofilm formation.Survival for the nine single-prophage deletion strains (marked with each prophage name) and the multiple prophage-deletion strain (Δ9) after challenging with (a) nalidixic acid (2 μg ml−1 for 12 h), (b) azlocillin (4 μg ml−1 for 12 h), (c) osmotic stress (6% NaCl for 12 h), (d) oxidative stress (30 mM H2O2 for 15 min), (e) acid stress (pH 2.5 for 30 min) and (f) heat stress (65 °C for 10 min). (g) Survival for the 15 single-gene deletion strains of CPS-53 (marked with each gene deletion) and the multiple prophage-deletion strain (Δ9) after challenging with oxidative stress (30 mM H2O2 for 15 min). (h) Normalized biofilm formation in 96-well polystyrene plates in M9C medium after 8 h at 30 °C. Error bars indicate s.d. values (n=4). Significant changes are marked with an asterisk for P<0.05.

Mentions: To explore the impact of the individual prophage on resistance to nalidixic acid (2 μg ml−1), strains with a single prophage deleted were tested. We determined that prophages CP4-6 and rac were primarily responsible for the enhanced resistance to nalidixic acid (33- and 41-fold, respectively; Fig. 4a).


Cryptic prophages help bacteria cope with adverse environments.

Wang X, Kim Y, Ma Q, Hong SH, Pokusaeva K, Sturino JM, Wood TK - Nat Commun (2010)

Individual prophages affect cell viability with stress and biofilm formation.Survival for the nine single-prophage deletion strains (marked with each prophage name) and the multiple prophage-deletion strain (Δ9) after challenging with (a) nalidixic acid (2 μg ml−1 for 12 h), (b) azlocillin (4 μg ml−1 for 12 h), (c) osmotic stress (6% NaCl for 12 h), (d) oxidative stress (30 mM H2O2 for 15 min), (e) acid stress (pH 2.5 for 30 min) and (f) heat stress (65 °C for 10 min). (g) Survival for the 15 single-gene deletion strains of CPS-53 (marked with each gene deletion) and the multiple prophage-deletion strain (Δ9) after challenging with oxidative stress (30 mM H2O2 for 15 min). (h) Normalized biofilm formation in 96-well polystyrene plates in M9C medium after 8 h at 30 °C. Error bars indicate s.d. values (n=4). Significant changes are marked with an asterisk for P<0.05.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3105296&req=5

f4: Individual prophages affect cell viability with stress and biofilm formation.Survival for the nine single-prophage deletion strains (marked with each prophage name) and the multiple prophage-deletion strain (Δ9) after challenging with (a) nalidixic acid (2 μg ml−1 for 12 h), (b) azlocillin (4 μg ml−1 for 12 h), (c) osmotic stress (6% NaCl for 12 h), (d) oxidative stress (30 mM H2O2 for 15 min), (e) acid stress (pH 2.5 for 30 min) and (f) heat stress (65 °C for 10 min). (g) Survival for the 15 single-gene deletion strains of CPS-53 (marked with each gene deletion) and the multiple prophage-deletion strain (Δ9) after challenging with oxidative stress (30 mM H2O2 for 15 min). (h) Normalized biofilm formation in 96-well polystyrene plates in M9C medium after 8 h at 30 °C. Error bars indicate s.d. values (n=4). Significant changes are marked with an asterisk for P<0.05.
Mentions: To explore the impact of the individual prophage on resistance to nalidixic acid (2 μg ml−1), strains with a single prophage deleted were tested. We determined that prophages CP4-6 and rac were primarily responsible for the enhanced resistance to nalidixic acid (33- and 41-fold, respectively; Fig. 4a).

Bottom Line: We find that cryptic prophages contribute significantly to resistance to sub-lethal concentrations of quinolone and β-lactam antibiotics primarily through proteins that inhibit cell division (for example, KilR of rac and DicB of Qin).Moreover, the prophages are beneficial for withstanding osmotic, oxidative and acid stresses, for increasing growth, and for influencing biofilm formation.Therefore, cryptic prophages provide multiple benefits to the host for surviving adverse environmental conditions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A & M University, 220 Jack E. Brown Building, College Station, Texas 77843-3122, USA.

ABSTRACT
Phages are the most abundant entity in the biosphere and outnumber bacteria by a factor of 10. Phage DNA may also constitute 20% of bacterial genomes; however, its role is ill defined. Here, we explore the impact of cryptic prophages on cell physiology by precisely deleting all nine prophage elements (166 kbp) using Escherichia coli. We find that cryptic prophages contribute significantly to resistance to sub-lethal concentrations of quinolone and β-lactam antibiotics primarily through proteins that inhibit cell division (for example, KilR of rac and DicB of Qin). Moreover, the prophages are beneficial for withstanding osmotic, oxidative and acid stresses, for increasing growth, and for influencing biofilm formation. Prophage CPS-53 proteins YfdK, YfdO and YfdS enhanced resistance to oxidative stress, prophages e14, CPS-53 and CP4-57 increased resistance to acid, and e14 and rac proteins increased early biofilm formation. Therefore, cryptic prophages provide multiple benefits to the host for surviving adverse environmental conditions.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus