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Spatially explicit analysis of metal transfer to biota: influence of soil contamination and landscape.

Fritsch C, Cœurdassier M, Giraudoux P, Raoul F, Douay F, Rieffel D, de Vaufleury A, Scheifler R - PLoS ONE (2011)

Bottom Line: They increased with soil pollution and were better explained by total rather than CaCl(2)-extractable TM concentrations, except in Cepaea sp.The potential underlying mechanisms of landscape influence (community functioning, behaviour, etc.) are discussed.Present results highlight the need for the further development of landscape ecotoxicology and multi-scale approaches, which would enhance our understanding of pollutant transfer and effects in ecosystems.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chrono-Environment, UMR UFC/CNRS 6249 USC INRA, University of Franche-Comté, Besançon, France. clementine.fritsch@univ-fcomte.fr

ABSTRACT
Concepts and developments for a new field in ecotoxicology, referred to as "landscape ecotoxicology," were proposed in the 1990s; however, to date, few studies have been developed in this emergent field. In fact, there is a strong interest in developing this area, both for renewing the concepts and tools used in ecotoxicology as well as for responding to practical issues, such as risk assessment. The aim of this study was to investigate the spatial heterogeneity of metal bioaccumulation in animals in order to identify the role of spatially explicit factors, such as landscape as well as total and extractable metal concentrations in soils. Over a smelter-impacted area, we studied the accumulation of trace metals (TMs: Cd, Pb and Zn) in invertebrates (the grove snail Cepaea sp and the glass snail Oxychilus draparnaudi) and vertebrates (the bank vole Myodes glareolus and the greater white-toothed shrew Crocidura russula). Total and CaCl(2)-extractable concentrations of TMs were measured in soils from woody patches where the animals were captured. TM concentrations in animals exhibited a high spatial heterogeneity. They increased with soil pollution and were better explained by total rather than CaCl(2)-extractable TM concentrations, except in Cepaea sp. TM levels in animals and their variations along the pollution gradient were modulated by the landscape, and this influence was species and metal specific. Median soil metal concentrations (predicted by universal kriging) were calculated in buffers of increasing size and were related to bioaccumulation. The spatial scale at which TM concentrations in animals and soils showed the strongest correlations varied between metals, species and landscapes. The potential underlying mechanisms of landscape influence (community functioning, behaviour, etc.) are discussed. Present results highlight the need for the further development of landscape ecotoxicology and multi-scale approaches, which would enhance our understanding of pollutant transfer and effects in ecosystems.

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Summary and overall interpretation of the data with the example of Pb in small mammals.The data concerning Pb in the bank vole and in the greater white-toothed shrew is summarised, thus illustrating our overall interpretation of the data. Data concerning metal accumulation are R2 values and slopes of the regressions between Pb concentrations in the liver (normalized to age) and total Pb concentrations in soil measured at the sampling point in addition to patterns of evolution of the R2 values with buffer size. Maps of landscapes are based upon observed situations within the study area. Maps of suitable habitats for each species are hypothesized on the basis of habitat preferences described in the literature. Three patterns linking internal TM concentrations to soil TM concentrations have been uncovered, these patterns are named “Case 1, 2 and 3”.
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pone-0020682-g006: Summary and overall interpretation of the data with the example of Pb in small mammals.The data concerning Pb in the bank vole and in the greater white-toothed shrew is summarised, thus illustrating our overall interpretation of the data. Data concerning metal accumulation are R2 values and slopes of the regressions between Pb concentrations in the liver (normalized to age) and total Pb concentrations in soil measured at the sampling point in addition to patterns of evolution of the R2 values with buffer size. Maps of landscapes are based upon observed situations within the study area. Maps of suitable habitats for each species are hypothesized on the basis of habitat preferences described in the literature. Three patterns linking internal TM concentrations to soil TM concentrations have been uncovered, these patterns are named “Case 1, 2 and 3”.

Mentions: The movements of small mammals are known to be variable among landscapes because of the spatial heterogeneity of suitable habitats, their connectivity and the characteristics of the ecological barriers [49], [97]. Presence and survival of animals in heterogeneous landscapes are related to both site-specific characteristics, which define habitat quality on a local scale, and to factors acting at the landscape and/or meta-population scale [98]. Landscape features, animal habitat preferences and resource requirements govern the spatial repartition of suitable/unsuitable patches over an area [22]. This can result in different exposure patterns among landscapes for a given species, and can lead to different inter-species exposure within the same landscape type [4], [25]. Within this context, we propose a synthetic interpretation of the results we obtained from small mammals, using Pb as an example (Figure 6). We hypothesize that relationships between internal and soil TMs are modulated by both landscape and the ecological characteristics of the species. In other words, we propose that the exposure of each species and the resulting bioaccumulation are dependent upon its ecological characteristics (such as spatial behaviour and diet) which are likely to be landscape-specific.


Spatially explicit analysis of metal transfer to biota: influence of soil contamination and landscape.

Fritsch C, Cœurdassier M, Giraudoux P, Raoul F, Douay F, Rieffel D, de Vaufleury A, Scheifler R - PLoS ONE (2011)

Summary and overall interpretation of the data with the example of Pb in small mammals.The data concerning Pb in the bank vole and in the greater white-toothed shrew is summarised, thus illustrating our overall interpretation of the data. Data concerning metal accumulation are R2 values and slopes of the regressions between Pb concentrations in the liver (normalized to age) and total Pb concentrations in soil measured at the sampling point in addition to patterns of evolution of the R2 values with buffer size. Maps of landscapes are based upon observed situations within the study area. Maps of suitable habitats for each species are hypothesized on the basis of habitat preferences described in the literature. Three patterns linking internal TM concentrations to soil TM concentrations have been uncovered, these patterns are named “Case 1, 2 and 3”.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3105103&req=5

pone-0020682-g006: Summary and overall interpretation of the data with the example of Pb in small mammals.The data concerning Pb in the bank vole and in the greater white-toothed shrew is summarised, thus illustrating our overall interpretation of the data. Data concerning metal accumulation are R2 values and slopes of the regressions between Pb concentrations in the liver (normalized to age) and total Pb concentrations in soil measured at the sampling point in addition to patterns of evolution of the R2 values with buffer size. Maps of landscapes are based upon observed situations within the study area. Maps of suitable habitats for each species are hypothesized on the basis of habitat preferences described in the literature. Three patterns linking internal TM concentrations to soil TM concentrations have been uncovered, these patterns are named “Case 1, 2 and 3”.
Mentions: The movements of small mammals are known to be variable among landscapes because of the spatial heterogeneity of suitable habitats, their connectivity and the characteristics of the ecological barriers [49], [97]. Presence and survival of animals in heterogeneous landscapes are related to both site-specific characteristics, which define habitat quality on a local scale, and to factors acting at the landscape and/or meta-population scale [98]. Landscape features, animal habitat preferences and resource requirements govern the spatial repartition of suitable/unsuitable patches over an area [22]. This can result in different exposure patterns among landscapes for a given species, and can lead to different inter-species exposure within the same landscape type [4], [25]. Within this context, we propose a synthetic interpretation of the results we obtained from small mammals, using Pb as an example (Figure 6). We hypothesize that relationships between internal and soil TMs are modulated by both landscape and the ecological characteristics of the species. In other words, we propose that the exposure of each species and the resulting bioaccumulation are dependent upon its ecological characteristics (such as spatial behaviour and diet) which are likely to be landscape-specific.

Bottom Line: They increased with soil pollution and were better explained by total rather than CaCl(2)-extractable TM concentrations, except in Cepaea sp.The potential underlying mechanisms of landscape influence (community functioning, behaviour, etc.) are discussed.Present results highlight the need for the further development of landscape ecotoxicology and multi-scale approaches, which would enhance our understanding of pollutant transfer and effects in ecosystems.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chrono-Environment, UMR UFC/CNRS 6249 USC INRA, University of Franche-Comté, Besançon, France. clementine.fritsch@univ-fcomte.fr

ABSTRACT
Concepts and developments for a new field in ecotoxicology, referred to as "landscape ecotoxicology," were proposed in the 1990s; however, to date, few studies have been developed in this emergent field. In fact, there is a strong interest in developing this area, both for renewing the concepts and tools used in ecotoxicology as well as for responding to practical issues, such as risk assessment. The aim of this study was to investigate the spatial heterogeneity of metal bioaccumulation in animals in order to identify the role of spatially explicit factors, such as landscape as well as total and extractable metal concentrations in soils. Over a smelter-impacted area, we studied the accumulation of trace metals (TMs: Cd, Pb and Zn) in invertebrates (the grove snail Cepaea sp and the glass snail Oxychilus draparnaudi) and vertebrates (the bank vole Myodes glareolus and the greater white-toothed shrew Crocidura russula). Total and CaCl(2)-extractable concentrations of TMs were measured in soils from woody patches where the animals were captured. TM concentrations in animals exhibited a high spatial heterogeneity. They increased with soil pollution and were better explained by total rather than CaCl(2)-extractable TM concentrations, except in Cepaea sp. TM levels in animals and their variations along the pollution gradient were modulated by the landscape, and this influence was species and metal specific. Median soil metal concentrations (predicted by universal kriging) were calculated in buffers of increasing size and were related to bioaccumulation. The spatial scale at which TM concentrations in animals and soils showed the strongest correlations varied between metals, species and landscapes. The potential underlying mechanisms of landscape influence (community functioning, behaviour, etc.) are discussed. Present results highlight the need for the further development of landscape ecotoxicology and multi-scale approaches, which would enhance our understanding of pollutant transfer and effects in ecosystems.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus