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Environmental and climatic determinants of molecular diversity and genetic population structure in a coenagrionid damselfly.

Wellenreuther M, Sánchez-Guillén RA, Cordero-Rivera A, Svensson EI, Hansson B - PLoS ONE (2011)

Bottom Line: We found low to moderate genetic sub-structuring between populations (mean F(ST) = 0.06, D(est) = 0.12), and an effect of longitude, but not latitude, on genetic diversity.No significant effects of geographic boundaries (e.g. water bodies) were found.Finally, we did not detect any molecular signatures of range expansions or an effect of geographic suitability, although local precipitation had a strong effect on genetic differentiation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden. maren.wellenreuther@biol.lu.se

ABSTRACT
Identifying environmental factors that structure intraspecific genetic diversity is of interest for both habitat preservation and biodiversity conservation. Recent advances in statistical and geographical genetics make it possible to investigate how environmental factors affect geographic organisation and population structure of molecular genetic diversity within species. Here we present a study on a common and wide ranging insect, the blue tailed damselfly Ischnuraelegans, which has been the target of many ecological and evolutionary studies. We addressed the following questions: (i) Is the population structure affected by longitudinal or latitudinal gradients?; (ii) Do geographic boundaries limit gene flow?; (iii) Does geographic distance affect connectivity and is there a signature of past bottlenecks?; (iv) Is there evidence of a recent range expansion and (vi) what is the effect of geography and climatic factors on population structure? We found low to moderate genetic sub-structuring between populations (mean F(ST) = 0.06, D(est) = 0.12), and an effect of longitude, but not latitude, on genetic diversity. No significant effects of geographic boundaries (e.g. water bodies) were found. F(ST)-and D(est)-values increased with geographic distance; however, there was no evidence for recent bottlenecks. Finally, we did not detect any molecular signatures of range expansions or an effect of geographic suitability, although local precipitation had a strong effect on genetic differentiation. The population structure of this small insect has probably been shaped by ecological factors that are correlated with longitudinal gradients, geographic distances, and local precipitation. The relatively weak global population structure and high degree of genetic variation within populations suggest that I. elegans has high dispersal ability, which is consistent with this species being an effective and early coloniser of new habitats.

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Estimated population structure of the 22 I. elegans                            populations and the four I. graellsii populations from                            Bayesian structure analysis using the program STRUCTURE 2.2.3.A). Mean likelihood (± SD) of K for                            different numbers of clusters B)                            ΔK-values for different K;                            suggesting K = 3 as the most                            likely structure according to Evanno et al. [41]. C)                            Individual Bayesian assignment probabilities for                            K = 3 for 22 populations of                                I. elegans and the outgroupI.                                graellsii(grouped for visualisation into ten geographically                            close groups). Individuals are represented by thin vertical lines, which                            are partitioned into K shaded segments representing                            each individual's estimated membership fraction. D)                            Pie charts show the mean membership fractions to each of the three                            genetic clusters in ten groups of populations.
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pone-0020440-g003: Estimated population structure of the 22 I. elegans populations and the four I. graellsii populations from Bayesian structure analysis using the program STRUCTURE 2.2.3.A). Mean likelihood (± SD) of K for different numbers of clusters B) ΔK-values for different K; suggesting K = 3 as the most likely structure according to Evanno et al. [41]. C) Individual Bayesian assignment probabilities for K = 3 for 22 populations of I. elegans and the outgroupI. graellsii(grouped for visualisation into ten geographically close groups). Individuals are represented by thin vertical lines, which are partitioned into K shaded segments representing each individual's estimated membership fraction. D) Pie charts show the mean membership fractions to each of the three genetic clusters in ten groups of populations.

Mentions: To further evaluate intraspecific population differentiation between I. elegans populations, and their genetic similarity to I. graellsii, we used STRUCTURE to group populations into clusters. Structure supported the presence of differentiation among the populations, and the ΔK-method suggested three clusters as the most likely population structure (Figure 3A and B). The proportion of membership of each individual to each of the three genetic clusters (K = 3) is given in Figure 3C, and the average membership of individuals in closely located populations in 10 regions is given in Figure 3D. The proportion of membership of each individual to each of the 1–10 genetic clusters (K = 1–10) is shown in Figure S1. The results show a single very distinct I. graellsii group and three relatively diffuse genetic groupings of I. elegansthat fall into a geographic pattern that consists of (i) northern and central (Sweden, Germany, Belgium, Great Britain, North France, South France and Italy), (ii) western and southern (Spain), and (iii) eastern populations (Ukraine and Poland; Figure 3C and D).


Environmental and climatic determinants of molecular diversity and genetic population structure in a coenagrionid damselfly.

Wellenreuther M, Sánchez-Guillén RA, Cordero-Rivera A, Svensson EI, Hansson B - PLoS ONE (2011)

Estimated population structure of the 22 I. elegans                            populations and the four I. graellsii populations from                            Bayesian structure analysis using the program STRUCTURE 2.2.3.A). Mean likelihood (± SD) of K for                            different numbers of clusters B)                            ΔK-values for different K;                            suggesting K = 3 as the most                            likely structure according to Evanno et al. [41]. C)                            Individual Bayesian assignment probabilities for                            K = 3 for 22 populations of                                I. elegans and the outgroupI.                                graellsii(grouped for visualisation into ten geographically                            close groups). Individuals are represented by thin vertical lines, which                            are partitioned into K shaded segments representing                            each individual's estimated membership fraction. D)                            Pie charts show the mean membership fractions to each of the three                            genetic clusters in ten groups of populations.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3105071&req=5

pone-0020440-g003: Estimated population structure of the 22 I. elegans populations and the four I. graellsii populations from Bayesian structure analysis using the program STRUCTURE 2.2.3.A). Mean likelihood (± SD) of K for different numbers of clusters B) ΔK-values for different K; suggesting K = 3 as the most likely structure according to Evanno et al. [41]. C) Individual Bayesian assignment probabilities for K = 3 for 22 populations of I. elegans and the outgroupI. graellsii(grouped for visualisation into ten geographically close groups). Individuals are represented by thin vertical lines, which are partitioned into K shaded segments representing each individual's estimated membership fraction. D) Pie charts show the mean membership fractions to each of the three genetic clusters in ten groups of populations.
Mentions: To further evaluate intraspecific population differentiation between I. elegans populations, and their genetic similarity to I. graellsii, we used STRUCTURE to group populations into clusters. Structure supported the presence of differentiation among the populations, and the ΔK-method suggested three clusters as the most likely population structure (Figure 3A and B). The proportion of membership of each individual to each of the three genetic clusters (K = 3) is given in Figure 3C, and the average membership of individuals in closely located populations in 10 regions is given in Figure 3D. The proportion of membership of each individual to each of the 1–10 genetic clusters (K = 1–10) is shown in Figure S1. The results show a single very distinct I. graellsii group and three relatively diffuse genetic groupings of I. elegansthat fall into a geographic pattern that consists of (i) northern and central (Sweden, Germany, Belgium, Great Britain, North France, South France and Italy), (ii) western and southern (Spain), and (iii) eastern populations (Ukraine and Poland; Figure 3C and D).

Bottom Line: We found low to moderate genetic sub-structuring between populations (mean F(ST) = 0.06, D(est) = 0.12), and an effect of longitude, but not latitude, on genetic diversity.No significant effects of geographic boundaries (e.g. water bodies) were found.Finally, we did not detect any molecular signatures of range expansions or an effect of geographic suitability, although local precipitation had a strong effect on genetic differentiation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden. maren.wellenreuther@biol.lu.se

ABSTRACT
Identifying environmental factors that structure intraspecific genetic diversity is of interest for both habitat preservation and biodiversity conservation. Recent advances in statistical and geographical genetics make it possible to investigate how environmental factors affect geographic organisation and population structure of molecular genetic diversity within species. Here we present a study on a common and wide ranging insect, the blue tailed damselfly Ischnuraelegans, which has been the target of many ecological and evolutionary studies. We addressed the following questions: (i) Is the population structure affected by longitudinal or latitudinal gradients?; (ii) Do geographic boundaries limit gene flow?; (iii) Does geographic distance affect connectivity and is there a signature of past bottlenecks?; (iv) Is there evidence of a recent range expansion and (vi) what is the effect of geography and climatic factors on population structure? We found low to moderate genetic sub-structuring between populations (mean F(ST) = 0.06, D(est) = 0.12), and an effect of longitude, but not latitude, on genetic diversity. No significant effects of geographic boundaries (e.g. water bodies) were found. F(ST)-and D(est)-values increased with geographic distance; however, there was no evidence for recent bottlenecks. Finally, we did not detect any molecular signatures of range expansions or an effect of geographic suitability, although local precipitation had a strong effect on genetic differentiation. The population structure of this small insect has probably been shaped by ecological factors that are correlated with longitudinal gradients, geographic distances, and local precipitation. The relatively weak global population structure and high degree of genetic variation within populations suggest that I. elegans has high dispersal ability, which is consistent with this species being an effective and early coloniser of new habitats.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus