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Immunolocalization of influenza A virus and markers of inflammation in the human Parkinson's disease brain.

Rohn TT, Catlin LW - PLoS ONE (2011)

Bottom Line: Although much is known regarding the molecular mechanisms leading to neuronal cell loss in Parkinson's disease (PD), the initiating event has not been identified.Prevailing theories including a chemical insult or infectious agent have been postulated as possible triggers, leading to neuroinflammation.Further supporting a role for neuroinflammation in PD was the identification of T-lymphocytes that colocalized with an antibody to caspase-cleaved Beclin-1 within the SNpc.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, Boise State University, Boise, Idaho, United States of America. trohn@boisestate.edu

ABSTRACT
Although much is known regarding the molecular mechanisms leading to neuronal cell loss in Parkinson's disease (PD), the initiating event has not been identified. Prevailing theories including a chemical insult or infectious agent have been postulated as possible triggers, leading to neuroinflammation. We present immunohistochemical data indicating the presence of influenza A virus within the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) from postmortem PD brain sections. Influenza A virus labeling was identified within neuromelanin granules as well as on tissue macrophages in the SNpc. Further supporting a role for neuroinflammation in PD was the identification of T-lymphocytes that colocalized with an antibody to caspase-cleaved Beclin-1 within the SNpc. The presence of influenza A virus together with macrophages and T-lymphocytes may contribute to the neuroinflammation associated with this disease.

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Influenza A-positive macrophages co-localize with caspase-cleaved Beclin-1 and are surrounded by cytotoxic T-lymphocytes.Representative immunofluorescence triple labeling in a PD case was undertaken using three different antibodies: (A) anti-influenza A (red), (B) BeclinCCP (blue), and (C) anti-CD8 (green). (D): Panel D displays the overlapped image for all three antibodies indicating the presence of influenza A viral proteins on an apparent macrophage displaying diffuse BeclinCCP labeling (arrow, D). In addition, numerous CD8+ cells are in close proximity to the macrophage and some of these cells demonstrated colocalization with the influenza A virus antibody (arrowheads, D). All scale bars are 10 µm.
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pone-0020495-g006: Influenza A-positive macrophages co-localize with caspase-cleaved Beclin-1 and are surrounded by cytotoxic T-lymphocytes.Representative immunofluorescence triple labeling in a PD case was undertaken using three different antibodies: (A) anti-influenza A (red), (B) BeclinCCP (blue), and (C) anti-CD8 (green). (D): Panel D displays the overlapped image for all three antibodies indicating the presence of influenza A viral proteins on an apparent macrophage displaying diffuse BeclinCCP labeling (arrow, D). In addition, numerous CD8+ cells are in close proximity to the macrophage and some of these cells demonstrated colocalization with the influenza A virus antibody (arrowheads, D). All scale bars are 10 µm.

Mentions: In a final set of experiments, triple-labeling experiments were undertaken in representative PD cases to determine the localization of influenza A virus, BeclinCCP, and CD8+ T-lymphocytes (Fig. 6). The overlap image for the three antibodies indicated the presence of an apparent macrophage labeled with both anti-influenza A and BeclinCCP surrounded by CD8+ T-lymphocytes (Fig. 6D). In addition, co-localization of the influenza A virus within CD8+ T-lymphocytes was evident, and many of these cells tended to cluster around the macrophage (Fig. 6D). These results are suggestive of a possible interaction between cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and macrophages.


Immunolocalization of influenza A virus and markers of inflammation in the human Parkinson's disease brain.

Rohn TT, Catlin LW - PLoS ONE (2011)

Influenza A-positive macrophages co-localize with caspase-cleaved Beclin-1 and are surrounded by cytotoxic T-lymphocytes.Representative immunofluorescence triple labeling in a PD case was undertaken using three different antibodies: (A) anti-influenza A (red), (B) BeclinCCP (blue), and (C) anti-CD8 (green). (D): Panel D displays the overlapped image for all three antibodies indicating the presence of influenza A viral proteins on an apparent macrophage displaying diffuse BeclinCCP labeling (arrow, D). In addition, numerous CD8+ cells are in close proximity to the macrophage and some of these cells demonstrated colocalization with the influenza A virus antibody (arrowheads, D). All scale bars are 10 µm.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3105060&req=5

pone-0020495-g006: Influenza A-positive macrophages co-localize with caspase-cleaved Beclin-1 and are surrounded by cytotoxic T-lymphocytes.Representative immunofluorescence triple labeling in a PD case was undertaken using three different antibodies: (A) anti-influenza A (red), (B) BeclinCCP (blue), and (C) anti-CD8 (green). (D): Panel D displays the overlapped image for all three antibodies indicating the presence of influenza A viral proteins on an apparent macrophage displaying diffuse BeclinCCP labeling (arrow, D). In addition, numerous CD8+ cells are in close proximity to the macrophage and some of these cells demonstrated colocalization with the influenza A virus antibody (arrowheads, D). All scale bars are 10 µm.
Mentions: In a final set of experiments, triple-labeling experiments were undertaken in representative PD cases to determine the localization of influenza A virus, BeclinCCP, and CD8+ T-lymphocytes (Fig. 6). The overlap image for the three antibodies indicated the presence of an apparent macrophage labeled with both anti-influenza A and BeclinCCP surrounded by CD8+ T-lymphocytes (Fig. 6D). In addition, co-localization of the influenza A virus within CD8+ T-lymphocytes was evident, and many of these cells tended to cluster around the macrophage (Fig. 6D). These results are suggestive of a possible interaction between cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and macrophages.

Bottom Line: Although much is known regarding the molecular mechanisms leading to neuronal cell loss in Parkinson's disease (PD), the initiating event has not been identified.Prevailing theories including a chemical insult or infectious agent have been postulated as possible triggers, leading to neuroinflammation.Further supporting a role for neuroinflammation in PD was the identification of T-lymphocytes that colocalized with an antibody to caspase-cleaved Beclin-1 within the SNpc.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, Boise State University, Boise, Idaho, United States of America. trohn@boisestate.edu

ABSTRACT
Although much is known regarding the molecular mechanisms leading to neuronal cell loss in Parkinson's disease (PD), the initiating event has not been identified. Prevailing theories including a chemical insult or infectious agent have been postulated as possible triggers, leading to neuroinflammation. We present immunohistochemical data indicating the presence of influenza A virus within the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) from postmortem PD brain sections. Influenza A virus labeling was identified within neuromelanin granules as well as on tissue macrophages in the SNpc. Further supporting a role for neuroinflammation in PD was the identification of T-lymphocytes that colocalized with an antibody to caspase-cleaved Beclin-1 within the SNpc. The presence of influenza A virus together with macrophages and T-lymphocytes may contribute to the neuroinflammation associated with this disease.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus