Limits...
Psychophysiological markers of vulnerability to psychopathology in men with an extra X chromosome (XXY).

van Rijn S, Swaab H, Magnée M, van Engeland H, Kemner C - PLoS ONE (2011)

Bottom Line: Also, reduced sensory gating in individuals with KS was suggested by significantly reduced prepulse inhibition of the startle response (PPI) (effect size 1.6).No abnormalities were found in suppression of the P50 (effect size 0.6).In sum, studying individuals with KS may prove to be an avenue of research leading to new hypotheses and insights into "at risk" pathways to psychopathology.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Clinical Child and Adolescent Studies, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands. srijn@fsw.leidenuniv.nl

ABSTRACT
Studying genetically defined syndromes associated with increased risk for psychopathology may help in understanding neurodevelopmental mechanisms related to risk for psychopathology. Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY) is one of the most common sex chromosomal aneuploidies (1 in 650 male births) and associated with increased vulnerability for psychopathology, including psychotic symptoms. Yet, it remains unknown whether this increased risk is associated with underlying psychophysiological mechanisms that are typically deficient in individuals with psychotic disorders. The present study assessed three "classic" psychophysiological markers of psychosis in Klinefelter syndrome (KS): smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM), prepulse inhibition (PPI) and P50 suppression. Fourteen adults with KS and 15 non-clinical adults participated in the study. Data on SPEM (reflecting visuo-motor control) as well as PPI and P50 suppression (reflecting sensory gating) were collected. Dysfunctions in SPEM were observed in individuals with KS, with less smooth pursuit as expressed in lower position gain. Also, reduced sensory gating in individuals with KS was suggested by significantly reduced prepulse inhibition of the startle response (PPI) (effect size 1.6). No abnormalities were found in suppression of the P50 (effect size 0.6). We speculate that impairments in these psychophysiological mechanisms may reflect core brain dysfunctions that may also mediate the described increased vulnerability for psychotic symptoms in KS. Although speculative, such deficit specific, rather than disorder specific, psychophysiological dysfunctions in KS might convey vulnerability to other types of psychopathology as well. As KS already can be diagnosed prenatally, the predictive value of childhood impairments in prepulse inhibition and smooth pursuit for development of psychopathology later in life could be assessed. In sum, studying individuals with KS may prove to be an avenue of research leading to new hypotheses and insights into "at risk" pathways to psychopathology.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Number of saccades as a function of stimulus velocity.No significant group effects or interactions were observed.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3105055&req=5

pone-0020292-g002: Number of saccades as a function of stimulus velocity.No significant group effects or interactions were observed.

Mentions: Besides position gain, we also analyzed number of saccades as a function on increasing stimulus velocity. Repeated measures analysis did not show a significant main effect of group, age or IQ. Also, there was no significant group by stimulus velocity interaction. See figure 2.


Psychophysiological markers of vulnerability to psychopathology in men with an extra X chromosome (XXY).

van Rijn S, Swaab H, Magnée M, van Engeland H, Kemner C - PLoS ONE (2011)

Number of saccades as a function of stimulus velocity.No significant group effects or interactions were observed.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3105055&req=5

pone-0020292-g002: Number of saccades as a function of stimulus velocity.No significant group effects or interactions were observed.
Mentions: Besides position gain, we also analyzed number of saccades as a function on increasing stimulus velocity. Repeated measures analysis did not show a significant main effect of group, age or IQ. Also, there was no significant group by stimulus velocity interaction. See figure 2.

Bottom Line: Also, reduced sensory gating in individuals with KS was suggested by significantly reduced prepulse inhibition of the startle response (PPI) (effect size 1.6).No abnormalities were found in suppression of the P50 (effect size 0.6).In sum, studying individuals with KS may prove to be an avenue of research leading to new hypotheses and insights into "at risk" pathways to psychopathology.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Clinical Child and Adolescent Studies, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands. srijn@fsw.leidenuniv.nl

ABSTRACT
Studying genetically defined syndromes associated with increased risk for psychopathology may help in understanding neurodevelopmental mechanisms related to risk for psychopathology. Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY) is one of the most common sex chromosomal aneuploidies (1 in 650 male births) and associated with increased vulnerability for psychopathology, including psychotic symptoms. Yet, it remains unknown whether this increased risk is associated with underlying psychophysiological mechanisms that are typically deficient in individuals with psychotic disorders. The present study assessed three "classic" psychophysiological markers of psychosis in Klinefelter syndrome (KS): smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM), prepulse inhibition (PPI) and P50 suppression. Fourteen adults with KS and 15 non-clinical adults participated in the study. Data on SPEM (reflecting visuo-motor control) as well as PPI and P50 suppression (reflecting sensory gating) were collected. Dysfunctions in SPEM were observed in individuals with KS, with less smooth pursuit as expressed in lower position gain. Also, reduced sensory gating in individuals with KS was suggested by significantly reduced prepulse inhibition of the startle response (PPI) (effect size 1.6). No abnormalities were found in suppression of the P50 (effect size 0.6). We speculate that impairments in these psychophysiological mechanisms may reflect core brain dysfunctions that may also mediate the described increased vulnerability for psychotic symptoms in KS. Although speculative, such deficit specific, rather than disorder specific, psychophysiological dysfunctions in KS might convey vulnerability to other types of psychopathology as well. As KS already can be diagnosed prenatally, the predictive value of childhood impairments in prepulse inhibition and smooth pursuit for development of psychopathology later in life could be assessed. In sum, studying individuals with KS may prove to be an avenue of research leading to new hypotheses and insights into "at risk" pathways to psychopathology.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus