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Patterns of coral disease across the Hawaiian archipelago: relating disease to environment.

Aeby GS, Williams GJ, Franklin EC, Kenyon J, Cox EF, Coles S, Work TM - PLoS ONE (2011)

Bottom Line: These results highlight the importance of understanding disease ecology when interpreting patterns of disease occurrence.In contrast, the high occurrence of PorGAs within the MHI suggests that PorGAs are related, directly or indirectly, to some environmental co-factor associated with increased human population sizes.The association with human population density differed among disease states with PorGAs showing a positive and PorTrm showing a negative association, but no significant explanatory power was offered for PorTLS.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Hawai'i Institute of Marine Biology, University of Hawaii, Kaneohe, Hawai'i, United States of America. greta@hawaii.edu

ABSTRACT
In Hawaii, coral reefs occur across a gradient of biological (host abundance), climatic (sea surface temperature anomalies) and anthropogenic conditions from the human-impacted reefs of the main Hawaiian Islands (MHI) to the pristine reefs of the northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). Coral disease surveys were conducted at 142 sites from across the Archipelago and disease patterns examined. Twelve diseases were recorded from three coral genera (Porites, Montipora, Acropora) with Porites having the highest prevalence. Porites growth anomalies (PorGAs) were significantly more prevalent within and indicative of reefs in the MHI and Porites trematodiasis (PorTrm) was significantly more prevalent within and indicative of reefs in the NWHI. Porites tissue loss syndrome (PorTLS) was also important in driving regional differences but that relationship was less clear. These results highlight the importance of understanding disease ecology when interpreting patterns of disease occurrence. PorTrm is caused by a parasitic flatworm that utilizes multiple hosts during its life cycle (fish, mollusk and coral). All three hosts must be present for the disease to occur and higher host abundance leads to higher disease prevalence. Thus, a high prevalence of PorTrm on Hawaiian reefs would be an indicator of a healthy coral reef ecosystem. In contrast, the high occurrence of PorGAs within the MHI suggests that PorGAs are related, directly or indirectly, to some environmental co-factor associated with increased human population sizes. Focusing on the three indicator diseases (PorGAs, PorTrm, PorTLS) we used statistical modeling to examine the underlying associations between disease prevalence and 14 different predictor variables (biotic and abiotic). All three diseases showed positive associations with host abundance and negative associations with thermal stress. The association with human population density differed among disease states with PorGAs showing a positive and PorTrm showing a negative association, but no significant explanatory power was offered for PorTLS.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Differences among coral taxa in disease prevalence across the Hawaiian archipelago.
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pone-0020370-g003: Differences among coral taxa in disease prevalence across the Hawaiian archipelago.

Mentions: Coral taxa differed in manifestation of lesions with seven diseases described from Porites (PorTrem, PorGA, PorMFTL, PorTL, Por bl w/TL, Por BND, Por DTTD), three from Montipora (MontWS, MontMFTL, MontGA) and two from Acropora (AcroWS, AcroGA) (Fig. 2). No disease signs were found on Pocillopora during these surveys. Prevalence of disease also varied among coral taxa with Porites having the highest prevalence and Pocillopora the lowest (Fig. 3) and these differences were consistent across regions (MHI: X2 = 1184.8, df = 2, p<0.001; NWHI: X2 = 928.4, df = 3, p<0.001).


Patterns of coral disease across the Hawaiian archipelago: relating disease to environment.

Aeby GS, Williams GJ, Franklin EC, Kenyon J, Cox EF, Coles S, Work TM - PLoS ONE (2011)

Differences among coral taxa in disease prevalence across the Hawaiian archipelago.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3105043&req=5

pone-0020370-g003: Differences among coral taxa in disease prevalence across the Hawaiian archipelago.
Mentions: Coral taxa differed in manifestation of lesions with seven diseases described from Porites (PorTrem, PorGA, PorMFTL, PorTL, Por bl w/TL, Por BND, Por DTTD), three from Montipora (MontWS, MontMFTL, MontGA) and two from Acropora (AcroWS, AcroGA) (Fig. 2). No disease signs were found on Pocillopora during these surveys. Prevalence of disease also varied among coral taxa with Porites having the highest prevalence and Pocillopora the lowest (Fig. 3) and these differences were consistent across regions (MHI: X2 = 1184.8, df = 2, p<0.001; NWHI: X2 = 928.4, df = 3, p<0.001).

Bottom Line: These results highlight the importance of understanding disease ecology when interpreting patterns of disease occurrence.In contrast, the high occurrence of PorGAs within the MHI suggests that PorGAs are related, directly or indirectly, to some environmental co-factor associated with increased human population sizes.The association with human population density differed among disease states with PorGAs showing a positive and PorTrm showing a negative association, but no significant explanatory power was offered for PorTLS.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Hawai'i Institute of Marine Biology, University of Hawaii, Kaneohe, Hawai'i, United States of America. greta@hawaii.edu

ABSTRACT
In Hawaii, coral reefs occur across a gradient of biological (host abundance), climatic (sea surface temperature anomalies) and anthropogenic conditions from the human-impacted reefs of the main Hawaiian Islands (MHI) to the pristine reefs of the northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). Coral disease surveys were conducted at 142 sites from across the Archipelago and disease patterns examined. Twelve diseases were recorded from three coral genera (Porites, Montipora, Acropora) with Porites having the highest prevalence. Porites growth anomalies (PorGAs) were significantly more prevalent within and indicative of reefs in the MHI and Porites trematodiasis (PorTrm) was significantly more prevalent within and indicative of reefs in the NWHI. Porites tissue loss syndrome (PorTLS) was also important in driving regional differences but that relationship was less clear. These results highlight the importance of understanding disease ecology when interpreting patterns of disease occurrence. PorTrm is caused by a parasitic flatworm that utilizes multiple hosts during its life cycle (fish, mollusk and coral). All three hosts must be present for the disease to occur and higher host abundance leads to higher disease prevalence. Thus, a high prevalence of PorTrm on Hawaiian reefs would be an indicator of a healthy coral reef ecosystem. In contrast, the high occurrence of PorGAs within the MHI suggests that PorGAs are related, directly or indirectly, to some environmental co-factor associated with increased human population sizes. Focusing on the three indicator diseases (PorGAs, PorTrm, PorTLS) we used statistical modeling to examine the underlying associations between disease prevalence and 14 different predictor variables (biotic and abiotic). All three diseases showed positive associations with host abundance and negative associations with thermal stress. The association with human population density differed among disease states with PorGAs showing a positive and PorTrm showing a negative association, but no significant explanatory power was offered for PorTLS.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus