Limits...
The use of carcasses for the analysis of cetacean population genetic structure: a comparative study in two dolphin species.

Bilgmann K, Möller LM, Harcourt RG, Kemper CM, Beheregaray LB - PLoS ONE (2011)

Bottom Line: This leads to the question of how representative the location of a stranded or entangled animal is with respect to its natural range, and whether similar results would be obtained when comparing carcass samples with samples from free-ranging individuals in studies of population structure.Analyses based on carcass samples alone failed to detect genetic structure in Tursiops sp., a species previously shown to exhibit restricted dispersal and moderate genetic differentiation across a small spatial scale in this region.However, genetic structure was correctly inferred in D. delphis, a species previously shown to have reduced genetic structure over a similar geographic area.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Marine Mammal Research Group, Graduate School of the Environment, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. kerstin.bilgmann@mq.edu.au

ABSTRACT
Advances in molecular techniques have enabled the study of genetic diversity and population structure in many different contexts. Studies that assess the genetic structure of cetacean populations often use biopsy samples from free-ranging individuals and tissue samples from stranded animals or individuals that became entangled in fishery or aquaculture equipment. This leads to the question of how representative the location of a stranded or entangled animal is with respect to its natural range, and whether similar results would be obtained when comparing carcass samples with samples from free-ranging individuals in studies of population structure. Here we use tissue samples from carcasses of dolphins that stranded or died as a result of bycatch in South Australia to investigate spatial population structure in two species: coastal bottlenose (Tursiops sp.) and short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis). We compare these results with those previously obtained from biopsy sampled free-ranging dolphins in the same area to test whether carcass samples yield similar patterns of genetic variability and population structure. Data from dolphin carcasses were gathered using seven microsatellite markers and a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA control region. Analyses based on carcass samples alone failed to detect genetic structure in Tursiops sp., a species previously shown to exhibit restricted dispersal and moderate genetic differentiation across a small spatial scale in this region. However, genetic structure was correctly inferred in D. delphis, a species previously shown to have reduced genetic structure over a similar geographic area. We propose that in the absence of corroborating data, and when population structure is assessed over relatively small spatial scales, the sole use of carcasses may lead to an underestimate of genetic differentiation. This can lead to a failure in identifying management units for conservation. Therefore, this risk should be carefully assessed when planning population genetic studies of cetaceans.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Assignment plot of genotype likelihood values of bottlenose dolphins to population A (Spencer Gulf = black squares) and B (western coastal = white diamonds).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3105009&req=5

pone-0020103-g002: Assignment plot of genotype likelihood values of bottlenose dolphins to population A (Spencer Gulf = black squares) and B (western coastal = white diamonds).

Mentions: Assignment tests with GENECLASS revealed that although the majority of dolphin carcasses were assigned with higher probability to the area in which they were found, ie W coastal or SG, there was no clear separation of dolphins into these two populations. A large proportion of individuals were assigned to both areas and therefore not rejected from the population in which they showed lower assignment probability. A total of 82.5% of individuals were correctly assigned to their population of origin (based on higher probability), however, the quality index was only 68.52%. As a result of this, the log likelihood plot shows no clustering of dolphins from similar geographic locations into these two areas (Figure 2).


The use of carcasses for the analysis of cetacean population genetic structure: a comparative study in two dolphin species.

Bilgmann K, Möller LM, Harcourt RG, Kemper CM, Beheregaray LB - PLoS ONE (2011)

Assignment plot of genotype likelihood values of bottlenose dolphins to population A (Spencer Gulf = black squares) and B (western coastal = white diamonds).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3105009&req=5

pone-0020103-g002: Assignment plot of genotype likelihood values of bottlenose dolphins to population A (Spencer Gulf = black squares) and B (western coastal = white diamonds).
Mentions: Assignment tests with GENECLASS revealed that although the majority of dolphin carcasses were assigned with higher probability to the area in which they were found, ie W coastal or SG, there was no clear separation of dolphins into these two populations. A large proportion of individuals were assigned to both areas and therefore not rejected from the population in which they showed lower assignment probability. A total of 82.5% of individuals were correctly assigned to their population of origin (based on higher probability), however, the quality index was only 68.52%. As a result of this, the log likelihood plot shows no clustering of dolphins from similar geographic locations into these two areas (Figure 2).

Bottom Line: This leads to the question of how representative the location of a stranded or entangled animal is with respect to its natural range, and whether similar results would be obtained when comparing carcass samples with samples from free-ranging individuals in studies of population structure.Analyses based on carcass samples alone failed to detect genetic structure in Tursiops sp., a species previously shown to exhibit restricted dispersal and moderate genetic differentiation across a small spatial scale in this region.However, genetic structure was correctly inferred in D. delphis, a species previously shown to have reduced genetic structure over a similar geographic area.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Marine Mammal Research Group, Graduate School of the Environment, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. kerstin.bilgmann@mq.edu.au

ABSTRACT
Advances in molecular techniques have enabled the study of genetic diversity and population structure in many different contexts. Studies that assess the genetic structure of cetacean populations often use biopsy samples from free-ranging individuals and tissue samples from stranded animals or individuals that became entangled in fishery or aquaculture equipment. This leads to the question of how representative the location of a stranded or entangled animal is with respect to its natural range, and whether similar results would be obtained when comparing carcass samples with samples from free-ranging individuals in studies of population structure. Here we use tissue samples from carcasses of dolphins that stranded or died as a result of bycatch in South Australia to investigate spatial population structure in two species: coastal bottlenose (Tursiops sp.) and short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis). We compare these results with those previously obtained from biopsy sampled free-ranging dolphins in the same area to test whether carcass samples yield similar patterns of genetic variability and population structure. Data from dolphin carcasses were gathered using seven microsatellite markers and a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA control region. Analyses based on carcass samples alone failed to detect genetic structure in Tursiops sp., a species previously shown to exhibit restricted dispersal and moderate genetic differentiation across a small spatial scale in this region. However, genetic structure was correctly inferred in D. delphis, a species previously shown to have reduced genetic structure over a similar geographic area. We propose that in the absence of corroborating data, and when population structure is assessed over relatively small spatial scales, the sole use of carcasses may lead to an underestimate of genetic differentiation. This can lead to a failure in identifying management units for conservation. Therefore, this risk should be carefully assessed when planning population genetic studies of cetaceans.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus