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The transit phase of migration: circulation of malaria and its multidrug-resistant forms in Africa.

Lynch C, Roper C - PLoS Med. (2011)

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

ABSTRACT

Movement of people is the means by which human pathogens are dispersed, so providing health care to mobile sectors of the community is vital to disease control interventions.

Using malaria as a case study, our article examines types of migrant transit and their significance for prevention and treatment of the disease.

Asymptomatic untreated infections act as reservoirs for malaria transmission. Malaria control programmes need to identify those migrant streams with potential to transport malaria and to target prevention and treatment measures appropriately.

Transit has also played a role in the dispersal of antimalarial drug resistance, with the international transportation of artemisinin-resistant parasites by human migration being the greatest threat to the antimalarial treatments used in Africa today.

A geographic framework of human migration at local, national, and international levels is needed so the potential speed and direction of pathogen dispersal can be predicted, and for health policy and services to respond appropriately to the needs of migrants and to threats of pandemic.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Regions of malaria parasite exchange strongly resemble the distribution                        of resistance allele lineages.(A) P. falciparum migration communities for Africa. The map                        shows communities connected by comparatively higher levels of malaria                        migration, with community membership shown by colour (from Tatem and Smith                            [13]).                        (B) The distribution of resistance mutant lineages among 20 African                            P falciparum populations (reprinted from Pearce et al.                            [14]).                        Most resistance mutations in the dhps gene belong to five                        major lineages, (indicated by the colours shown in the key) and each is                        derived from a single emergence event. Those which do not belong to the                        major five are shown in grey.
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pmed-1001040-g001: Regions of malaria parasite exchange strongly resemble the distribution of resistance allele lineages.(A) P. falciparum migration communities for Africa. The map shows communities connected by comparatively higher levels of malaria migration, with community membership shown by colour (from Tatem and Smith [13]). (B) The distribution of resistance mutant lineages among 20 African P falciparum populations (reprinted from Pearce et al. [14]). Most resistance mutations in the dhps gene belong to five major lineages, (indicated by the colours shown in the key) and each is derived from a single emergence event. Those which do not belong to the major five are shown in grey.

Mentions: In 2010, Tatem et al. [13] used permanent migration data derived from national census statistics and measures of malaria endemicity to describe communities of malaria-endemic African countries linked by higher levels of infection movement (see Figure 1A). Their analysis highlights “natural” migration regions where high levels of malaria infection are interchanged. A comparison of malaria migration data (Figure 1A) with the geographic distribution of parasite drug resistance lineages (Figure 1B) shows there is broad correspondence between migration and resistance patterns.


The transit phase of migration: circulation of malaria and its multidrug-resistant forms in Africa.

Lynch C, Roper C - PLoS Med. (2011)

Regions of malaria parasite exchange strongly resemble the distribution                        of resistance allele lineages.(A) P. falciparum migration communities for Africa. The map                        shows communities connected by comparatively higher levels of malaria                        migration, with community membership shown by colour (from Tatem and Smith                            [13]).                        (B) The distribution of resistance mutant lineages among 20 African                            P falciparum populations (reprinted from Pearce et al.                            [14]).                        Most resistance mutations in the dhps gene belong to five                        major lineages, (indicated by the colours shown in the key) and each is                        derived from a single emergence event. Those which do not belong to the                        major five are shown in grey.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3104977&req=5

pmed-1001040-g001: Regions of malaria parasite exchange strongly resemble the distribution of resistance allele lineages.(A) P. falciparum migration communities for Africa. The map shows communities connected by comparatively higher levels of malaria migration, with community membership shown by colour (from Tatem and Smith [13]). (B) The distribution of resistance mutant lineages among 20 African P falciparum populations (reprinted from Pearce et al. [14]). Most resistance mutations in the dhps gene belong to five major lineages, (indicated by the colours shown in the key) and each is derived from a single emergence event. Those which do not belong to the major five are shown in grey.
Mentions: In 2010, Tatem et al. [13] used permanent migration data derived from national census statistics and measures of malaria endemicity to describe communities of malaria-endemic African countries linked by higher levels of infection movement (see Figure 1A). Their analysis highlights “natural” migration regions where high levels of malaria infection are interchanged. A comparison of malaria migration data (Figure 1A) with the geographic distribution of parasite drug resistance lineages (Figure 1B) shows there is broad correspondence between migration and resistance patterns.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

ABSTRACT

Movement of people is the means by which human pathogens are dispersed, so providing health care to mobile sectors of the community is vital to disease control interventions.

Using malaria as a case study, our article examines types of migrant transit and their significance for prevention and treatment of the disease.

Asymptomatic untreated infections act as reservoirs for malaria transmission. Malaria control programmes need to identify those migrant streams with potential to transport malaria and to target prevention and treatment measures appropriately.

Transit has also played a role in the dispersal of antimalarial drug resistance, with the international transportation of artemisinin-resistant parasites by human migration being the greatest threat to the antimalarial treatments used in Africa today.

A geographic framework of human migration at local, national, and international levels is needed so the potential speed and direction of pathogen dispersal can be predicted, and for health policy and services to respond appropriately to the needs of migrants and to threats of pandemic.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus