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Vector competence of the tick Ixodes ricinus for transmission of Bartonella birtlesii.

Reis C, Cote M, Le Rhun D, Lecuelle B, Levin ML, Vayssier-Taussat M, Bonnet SI - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2011)

Bottom Line: We used a murine model to assess the vector competence of Ixodes ricinus for Bartonella birtlesii.Larval and nymphal I. ricinus were fed on a B. birtlesii-infected mouse.Consequently, bartonelloses should be now included in the differential diagnosis for patients exposed to tick bites.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, USC INRA Bartonella-Tiques, ANSES, Maisons-Alfort, France.

ABSTRACT
Bartonella spp. are facultative intracellular vector-borne bacteria associated with several emerging diseases in humans and animals all over the world. The potential for involvement of ticks in transmission of Bartonella spp. has been heartily debated for many years. However, most of the data supporting bartonellae transmission by ticks come from molecular and serological epidemiological surveys in humans and animals providing only indirect evidences without a direct proof of tick vector competence for transmission of bartonellae. We used a murine model to assess the vector competence of Ixodes ricinus for Bartonella birtlesii. Larval and nymphal I. ricinus were fed on a B. birtlesii-infected mouse. The nymphs successfully transmitted B. birtlesii to naïve mice as bacteria were recovered from both the mouse blood and liver at seven and 16 days after tick bites. The female adults successfully emitted the bacteria into uninfected blood after three or more days of tick attachment, when fed via membrane feeding system. Histochemical staining showed the presence of bacteria in salivary glands and muscle tissues of partially engorged adult ticks, which had molted from the infected nymphs. These results confirm the vector competence of I. ricinus for B. birtlesii and represent the first in vivo demonstration of a Bartonella sp. transmission by ticks. Consequently, bartonelloses should be now included in the differential diagnosis for patients exposed to tick bites.

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Ticks infection on mouse.Detection of B. birtlesii in adult I. ricinus salivary glands (A, B) and muscle tissues (C, D) sections colored with hemalun-eosin, by histochemical staining: A & C – uninfected ticks; B & D – infected ticks. Bacteria are indicated with arrows.
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pntd-0001186-g003: Ticks infection on mouse.Detection of B. birtlesii in adult I. ricinus salivary glands (A, B) and muscle tissues (C, D) sections colored with hemalun-eosin, by histochemical staining: A & C – uninfected ticks; B & D – infected ticks. Bacteria are indicated with arrows.

Mentions: Four partially engorged females from the infected cohort and two partially engorged uninfected females were detached from the respective membrane feeders at 72 h post-attachment and used for histological examination. B. birtlesii bacilli were identified as dense particles of approximately 1 µm both in the cytoplasm of salivary gland cells and at the periphery of striated muscle section of all four ticks from the infected cohort, while no bacteria could be detected on uninfected ticks (Figure 3). No bacteria were detected in the midgut of the ticks (data not shown).


Vector competence of the tick Ixodes ricinus for transmission of Bartonella birtlesii.

Reis C, Cote M, Le Rhun D, Lecuelle B, Levin ML, Vayssier-Taussat M, Bonnet SI - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2011)

Ticks infection on mouse.Detection of B. birtlesii in adult I. ricinus salivary glands (A, B) and muscle tissues (C, D) sections colored with hemalun-eosin, by histochemical staining: A & C – uninfected ticks; B & D – infected ticks. Bacteria are indicated with arrows.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3104967&req=5

pntd-0001186-g003: Ticks infection on mouse.Detection of B. birtlesii in adult I. ricinus salivary glands (A, B) and muscle tissues (C, D) sections colored with hemalun-eosin, by histochemical staining: A & C – uninfected ticks; B & D – infected ticks. Bacteria are indicated with arrows.
Mentions: Four partially engorged females from the infected cohort and two partially engorged uninfected females were detached from the respective membrane feeders at 72 h post-attachment and used for histological examination. B. birtlesii bacilli were identified as dense particles of approximately 1 µm both in the cytoplasm of salivary gland cells and at the periphery of striated muscle section of all four ticks from the infected cohort, while no bacteria could be detected on uninfected ticks (Figure 3). No bacteria were detected in the midgut of the ticks (data not shown).

Bottom Line: We used a murine model to assess the vector competence of Ixodes ricinus for Bartonella birtlesii.Larval and nymphal I. ricinus were fed on a B. birtlesii-infected mouse.Consequently, bartonelloses should be now included in the differential diagnosis for patients exposed to tick bites.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, USC INRA Bartonella-Tiques, ANSES, Maisons-Alfort, France.

ABSTRACT
Bartonella spp. are facultative intracellular vector-borne bacteria associated with several emerging diseases in humans and animals all over the world. The potential for involvement of ticks in transmission of Bartonella spp. has been heartily debated for many years. However, most of the data supporting bartonellae transmission by ticks come from molecular and serological epidemiological surveys in humans and animals providing only indirect evidences without a direct proof of tick vector competence for transmission of bartonellae. We used a murine model to assess the vector competence of Ixodes ricinus for Bartonella birtlesii. Larval and nymphal I. ricinus were fed on a B. birtlesii-infected mouse. The nymphs successfully transmitted B. birtlesii to naïve mice as bacteria were recovered from both the mouse blood and liver at seven and 16 days after tick bites. The female adults successfully emitted the bacteria into uninfected blood after three or more days of tick attachment, when fed via membrane feeding system. Histochemical staining showed the presence of bacteria in salivary glands and muscle tissues of partially engorged adult ticks, which had molted from the infected nymphs. These results confirm the vector competence of I. ricinus for B. birtlesii and represent the first in vivo demonstration of a Bartonella sp. transmission by ticks. Consequently, bartonelloses should be now included in the differential diagnosis for patients exposed to tick bites.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus