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Clonal differences between Non-Typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) recovered from children and animals living in close contact in the Gambia.

Dione MM, Ikumapayi UN, Saha D, Mohammed NI, Geerts S, Ieven M, Adegbola RA, Antonio M - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2011)

Bottom Line: Non-Typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) is an important cause of invasive bacterial disease and associated with mortality in Africa.There was no overlap in serovars or genotypes of NTS recovered from humans or animal sources in the same household.Our results do not support the hypothesis that humans and animals in close contact in the same household carry genotypically similar Salmonella serovars.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: International Trypanotolerance Centre, Banjul, The Gambia.

ABSTRACT

Background: Non-Typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) is an important cause of invasive bacterial disease and associated with mortality in Africa. However, little is known about the environmental reservoirs and predominant modes of transmission. Our study aimed to study the role of domestic animals in the transmission of NTS to humans in rural area of The Gambia.

Methodology: Human NTS isolates were obtained through an active population-based case-control surveillance study designated to determine the aetiology and epidemiology of enteric infections covering 27,567 Gambian children less than five years of age in the surveillance area. Fourteen children infected with NTS were traced back to their family compounds and anal swabs collected from 210 domestic animals present in their households. Identified NTSs were serotyped and genotyped by multi-locus sequencing typing.

Principal findings: NTS was identified from 21/210 animal sources in the households of the 14 infected children. Chickens carried NTS more frequently than sheep and goats; 66.6%, 28.6% and 4.8% respectively. The most common NTS serovars were S. Colindale in humans (21.42%) and S. Poona in animals (14.28%). MLST on the 35 NTS revealed four new alleles and 24 sequence types (ST) of which 18 (75%) STs were novel. There was no overlap in serovars or genotypes of NTS recovered from humans or animal sources in the same household.

Conclusion: Our results do not support the hypothesis that humans and animals in close contact in the same household carry genotypically similar Salmonella serovars. These findings form an important baseline for future studies of transmission of NTS in humans and animals in Africa.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Map of the Gambia showing the locations where Non-Typhoidal Salmonella were recovered in humans from the surveillance area in The Gambia.
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pntd-0001148-g001: Map of the Gambia showing the locations where Non-Typhoidal Salmonella were recovered in humans from the surveillance area in The Gambia.

Mentions: Human NTS was obtained through active population-based case-control surveillance between December 2007 and February 2009 which was designed to determine the aetiology and epidemiology of enteric infections in Gambian children less than five years of age as part of the Gates Enteric Multicentre Study (GEMS). The entire surveillance area (figure 1) including all the compounds was mapped under GPS coordinates. This surveillance area represented a total population of 152,393 of which 27,567 are less than five years of age. Children under five years of age who presented with severe diarrhoea (i.e., diarrhoea with dehydration, dysentery, or requiring hospitalization) within 3 days of onset of diarrhea were eligible to participate. For each enrolled child with diarrhoea, one healthy control child without diarrhoea was randomly selected from the community in which the case resided, matched to the case by age, gender, and time of presentation. After providing informed consent from the parent/guardian of each case or control a single, fresh, whole stool specimen was collected from cases and controls and cultured to detect bacteria species (Aeromonas spp., Campylobacter spp, Salmonella Typhi, NTS, Shigella spp, Vibrio spp, diarrheagenic E. coli strains), viral (Rotavirus, Adenovirus, Astrovirus, Norovirus, Sapovirus,) and protozoa (Cryptosporidium spp Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia).


Clonal differences between Non-Typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) recovered from children and animals living in close contact in the Gambia.

Dione MM, Ikumapayi UN, Saha D, Mohammed NI, Geerts S, Ieven M, Adegbola RA, Antonio M - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2011)

Map of the Gambia showing the locations where Non-Typhoidal Salmonella were recovered in humans from the surveillance area in The Gambia.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3104961&req=5

pntd-0001148-g001: Map of the Gambia showing the locations where Non-Typhoidal Salmonella were recovered in humans from the surveillance area in The Gambia.
Mentions: Human NTS was obtained through active population-based case-control surveillance between December 2007 and February 2009 which was designed to determine the aetiology and epidemiology of enteric infections in Gambian children less than five years of age as part of the Gates Enteric Multicentre Study (GEMS). The entire surveillance area (figure 1) including all the compounds was mapped under GPS coordinates. This surveillance area represented a total population of 152,393 of which 27,567 are less than five years of age. Children under five years of age who presented with severe diarrhoea (i.e., diarrhoea with dehydration, dysentery, or requiring hospitalization) within 3 days of onset of diarrhea were eligible to participate. For each enrolled child with diarrhoea, one healthy control child without diarrhoea was randomly selected from the community in which the case resided, matched to the case by age, gender, and time of presentation. After providing informed consent from the parent/guardian of each case or control a single, fresh, whole stool specimen was collected from cases and controls and cultured to detect bacteria species (Aeromonas spp., Campylobacter spp, Salmonella Typhi, NTS, Shigella spp, Vibrio spp, diarrheagenic E. coli strains), viral (Rotavirus, Adenovirus, Astrovirus, Norovirus, Sapovirus,) and protozoa (Cryptosporidium spp Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia).

Bottom Line: Non-Typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) is an important cause of invasive bacterial disease and associated with mortality in Africa.There was no overlap in serovars or genotypes of NTS recovered from humans or animal sources in the same household.Our results do not support the hypothesis that humans and animals in close contact in the same household carry genotypically similar Salmonella serovars.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: International Trypanotolerance Centre, Banjul, The Gambia.

ABSTRACT

Background: Non-Typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) is an important cause of invasive bacterial disease and associated with mortality in Africa. However, little is known about the environmental reservoirs and predominant modes of transmission. Our study aimed to study the role of domestic animals in the transmission of NTS to humans in rural area of The Gambia.

Methodology: Human NTS isolates were obtained through an active population-based case-control surveillance study designated to determine the aetiology and epidemiology of enteric infections covering 27,567 Gambian children less than five years of age in the surveillance area. Fourteen children infected with NTS were traced back to their family compounds and anal swabs collected from 210 domestic animals present in their households. Identified NTSs were serotyped and genotyped by multi-locus sequencing typing.

Principal findings: NTS was identified from 21/210 animal sources in the households of the 14 infected children. Chickens carried NTS more frequently than sheep and goats; 66.6%, 28.6% and 4.8% respectively. The most common NTS serovars were S. Colindale in humans (21.42%) and S. Poona in animals (14.28%). MLST on the 35 NTS revealed four new alleles and 24 sequence types (ST) of which 18 (75%) STs were novel. There was no overlap in serovars or genotypes of NTS recovered from humans or animal sources in the same household.

Conclusion: Our results do not support the hypothesis that humans and animals in close contact in the same household carry genotypically similar Salmonella serovars. These findings form an important baseline for future studies of transmission of NTS in humans and animals in Africa.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus