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The prevalence of blinding trachoma in northern states of Sudan.

Hassan A, Ngondi JM, King JD, Elshafie BE, Al Ginaid G, Elsanousi M, Abdalla Z, Aziz N, Sankara D, Simms V, Cromwell EA, Emerson PM, Binnawi KH - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2011)

Bottom Line: TF prevalence was above 10% in three districts and between 5% and 9% in 11 districts.TT prevalence among adults was above 1% in 20 districts (which included the three districts with TF prevalence >10%).The overall number of people with TT in the population was estimated to be 31,072 (lower and upper bounds = 26,125-36,955).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Federal Ministry of Health, Khartoum, Sudan.

ABSTRACT

Background: Despite historical evidence of blinding trachoma, there have been no widespread contemporary surveys of trachoma prevalence in the northern states of Sudan. We aimed to conduct district-level surveys in this vast region in order to map the extent of the problem and estimate the need for trachoma control interventions to eliminate blinding trachoma.

Methods and findings: Separate, population based cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 88 localities (districts) in 12 northern states of Sudan between 2006 and 2010. Two-stage cluster random sampling with probability proportional to size was used to select the sample. Trachoma grading was done using the WHO simplified grading system. Key prevalence indicators were trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) in children aged 1-9 years and trachomatous trichiasis (TT) in adults aged 15 years and above. The sample comprised 1,260 clusters from which 25,624 households were surveyed. A total of 106,697 participants (81.6% response rate) were examined for trachoma signs. TF prevalence was above 10% in three districts and between 5% and 9% in 11 districts. TT prevalence among adults was above 1% in 20 districts (which included the three districts with TF prevalence >10%). The overall number of people with TT in the population was estimated to be 31,072 (lower and upper bounds = 26,125-36,955).

Conclusion: Trachoma mapping is complete in the northern states of Sudan except for the Darfur States. The survey findings will facilitate programme planning and inform deployment of resources for elimination of trachoma from the northern states of Sudan by 2015, in accordance with the Sudan Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH) objectives.

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Age-specific prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis (TT) with 95% confidence intervals, by gender.
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pntd-0001027-g003: Age-specific prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis (TT) with 95% confidence intervals, by gender.

Mentions: The prevalence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF), clean face and trachomatous trichiasis (TT) are shown in Table 2 and Figures 1, 2 and 3. The prevalence of TF in children aged 1–9 years by district ranged from 0.0–19.8%. TF prevalence was above 10% in three districts: two in Blue Nile State (Geissan and Kurmuk); and one in Gederaf State (El Galabat East). A total of 11 districts had TF prevalence of between 5 and 9%, including: Dongola in Northern State; Port Sudan and Sawaken in Red Sea State; El Fashga, El Rahd, Gedaref and Gorisha in Gedaref State; El Jabalian in White Nile State; Eldindir in Sinnar State; Baw in Blue Nile State; and Abu Jubaiyeh in South Kordufan State. Overall, 84.7% (range by district 46.9–100) of children aged 1–9 years had a clean face. The prevalence of TT in adults aged 15 years and older by district ranged from 0 to 6.7%. TT prevalence was above the WHO threshold for community based intervention of 1% in 20 districts (which included the three districts with TF prevalence >10%). The prevalence of TT increased with age with an overall significantly higher prevalence among females compared to males (OR [Odds Ratio] = 1.7; 95% CI 1.4–2.2) [Figure 3].


The prevalence of blinding trachoma in northern states of Sudan.

Hassan A, Ngondi JM, King JD, Elshafie BE, Al Ginaid G, Elsanousi M, Abdalla Z, Aziz N, Sankara D, Simms V, Cromwell EA, Emerson PM, Binnawi KH - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2011)

Age-specific prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis (TT) with 95% confidence intervals, by gender.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3104955&req=5

pntd-0001027-g003: Age-specific prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis (TT) with 95% confidence intervals, by gender.
Mentions: The prevalence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF), clean face and trachomatous trichiasis (TT) are shown in Table 2 and Figures 1, 2 and 3. The prevalence of TF in children aged 1–9 years by district ranged from 0.0–19.8%. TF prevalence was above 10% in three districts: two in Blue Nile State (Geissan and Kurmuk); and one in Gederaf State (El Galabat East). A total of 11 districts had TF prevalence of between 5 and 9%, including: Dongola in Northern State; Port Sudan and Sawaken in Red Sea State; El Fashga, El Rahd, Gedaref and Gorisha in Gedaref State; El Jabalian in White Nile State; Eldindir in Sinnar State; Baw in Blue Nile State; and Abu Jubaiyeh in South Kordufan State. Overall, 84.7% (range by district 46.9–100) of children aged 1–9 years had a clean face. The prevalence of TT in adults aged 15 years and older by district ranged from 0 to 6.7%. TT prevalence was above the WHO threshold for community based intervention of 1% in 20 districts (which included the three districts with TF prevalence >10%). The prevalence of TT increased with age with an overall significantly higher prevalence among females compared to males (OR [Odds Ratio] = 1.7; 95% CI 1.4–2.2) [Figure 3].

Bottom Line: TF prevalence was above 10% in three districts and between 5% and 9% in 11 districts.TT prevalence among adults was above 1% in 20 districts (which included the three districts with TF prevalence >10%).The overall number of people with TT in the population was estimated to be 31,072 (lower and upper bounds = 26,125-36,955).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Federal Ministry of Health, Khartoum, Sudan.

ABSTRACT

Background: Despite historical evidence of blinding trachoma, there have been no widespread contemporary surveys of trachoma prevalence in the northern states of Sudan. We aimed to conduct district-level surveys in this vast region in order to map the extent of the problem and estimate the need for trachoma control interventions to eliminate blinding trachoma.

Methods and findings: Separate, population based cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 88 localities (districts) in 12 northern states of Sudan between 2006 and 2010. Two-stage cluster random sampling with probability proportional to size was used to select the sample. Trachoma grading was done using the WHO simplified grading system. Key prevalence indicators were trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) in children aged 1-9 years and trachomatous trichiasis (TT) in adults aged 15 years and above. The sample comprised 1,260 clusters from which 25,624 households were surveyed. A total of 106,697 participants (81.6% response rate) were examined for trachoma signs. TF prevalence was above 10% in three districts and between 5% and 9% in 11 districts. TT prevalence among adults was above 1% in 20 districts (which included the three districts with TF prevalence >10%). The overall number of people with TT in the population was estimated to be 31,072 (lower and upper bounds = 26,125-36,955).

Conclusion: Trachoma mapping is complete in the northern states of Sudan except for the Darfur States. The survey findings will facilitate programme planning and inform deployment of resources for elimination of trachoma from the northern states of Sudan by 2015, in accordance with the Sudan Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH) objectives.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus