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Genes, autoimmunity and pathogenesis of rheumatic heart disease.

Guilherme L, Köhler KF, Postol E, Kalil J - Ann Pediatr Cardiol (2011)

Bottom Line: Several genes associated with RHD have been described; most of these are involved with immune responses.High TNF alpha, interferon gamma, and low IL4 are found in the rheumatic valve suggesting an imbalance between Th1 and Th2 cytokines and probably contributing to the progressive and permanent valve damage.Animal model of ARF in the Lewis rat may further contribute towards understanding the ARF.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Heart Institute (InCor), School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo; Brazil.

ABSTRACT
Pathogenesis of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) remains incompletely understood. Several genes associated with RHD have been described; most of these are involved with immune responses. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in a number of genes affect patients with RHD compared to controls. Molecular mimicry between streptococcal antigens and human proteins, including cardiac myosin epitopes, vimentin and other intracellular proteins is central to the pathogenesis of RHD. Autoreactive T cells migrate from the peripheral blood to the heart and proliferate in the valves in response to stimulation with specific cytokines. The types of cells involved in the inflammation as well as different cytokine profiles in these patients are being investigated. High TNF alpha, interferon gamma, and low IL4 are found in the rheumatic valve suggesting an imbalance between Th1 and Th2 cytokines and probably contributing to the progressive and permanent valve damage. Animal model of ARF in the Lewis rat may further contribute towards understanding the ARF.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

RF/RHD associated HLA class II alleles: distribution around the world Several identified alleles by serology in the 80's and/or molecular biology after the 90's were shown. Americas: (USA, Mexico, Martinique, South of Brazil); Asia: (Paquistan-Kashmir, North India, Latvia, Japan, South China), United Arab Emirates: (Saudi Arabia) Europe-Asia: (Turkey), Africa: (South Africa and Egypt)
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Figure 2: RF/RHD associated HLA class II alleles: distribution around the world Several identified alleles by serology in the 80's and/or molecular biology after the 90's were shown. Americas: (USA, Mexico, Martinique, South of Brazil); Asia: (Paquistan-Kashmir, North India, Latvia, Japan, South China), United Arab Emirates: (Saudi Arabia) Europe-Asia: (Turkey), Africa: (South Africa and Egypt)

Mentions: Several HLA class II alleles were described in locations around the world [Figure 2].[3536]


Genes, autoimmunity and pathogenesis of rheumatic heart disease.

Guilherme L, Köhler KF, Postol E, Kalil J - Ann Pediatr Cardiol (2011)

RF/RHD associated HLA class II alleles: distribution around the world Several identified alleles by serology in the 80's and/or molecular biology after the 90's were shown. Americas: (USA, Mexico, Martinique, South of Brazil); Asia: (Paquistan-Kashmir, North India, Latvia, Japan, South China), United Arab Emirates: (Saudi Arabia) Europe-Asia: (Turkey), Africa: (South Africa and Egypt)
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3104525&req=5

Figure 2: RF/RHD associated HLA class II alleles: distribution around the world Several identified alleles by serology in the 80's and/or molecular biology after the 90's were shown. Americas: (USA, Mexico, Martinique, South of Brazil); Asia: (Paquistan-Kashmir, North India, Latvia, Japan, South China), United Arab Emirates: (Saudi Arabia) Europe-Asia: (Turkey), Africa: (South Africa and Egypt)
Mentions: Several HLA class II alleles were described in locations around the world [Figure 2].[3536]

Bottom Line: Several genes associated with RHD have been described; most of these are involved with immune responses.High TNF alpha, interferon gamma, and low IL4 are found in the rheumatic valve suggesting an imbalance between Th1 and Th2 cytokines and probably contributing to the progressive and permanent valve damage.Animal model of ARF in the Lewis rat may further contribute towards understanding the ARF.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Heart Institute (InCor), School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo; Brazil.

ABSTRACT
Pathogenesis of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) remains incompletely understood. Several genes associated with RHD have been described; most of these are involved with immune responses. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in a number of genes affect patients with RHD compared to controls. Molecular mimicry between streptococcal antigens and human proteins, including cardiac myosin epitopes, vimentin and other intracellular proteins is central to the pathogenesis of RHD. Autoreactive T cells migrate from the peripheral blood to the heart and proliferate in the valves in response to stimulation with specific cytokines. The types of cells involved in the inflammation as well as different cytokine profiles in these patients are being investigated. High TNF alpha, interferon gamma, and low IL4 are found in the rheumatic valve suggesting an imbalance between Th1 and Th2 cytokines and probably contributing to the progressive and permanent valve damage. Animal model of ARF in the Lewis rat may further contribute towards understanding the ARF.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus