The IncP-1 plasmid backbone adapts to different host bacterial species and evolves through homologous recombination.
Bottom Line: We also found that homologous recombination is a prominent feature of the plasmid backbone evolution.Analysis of genomic signatures indicates that the plasmids have adapted to different host bacterial species.Globally circulating IncP-1 plasmids hence contain mosaic structures of segments derived from several parental plasmids that have evolved in, and adapted to, different, phylogenetically very distant host bacterial species.
Affiliation: Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Microbiology, University of Gothenburg, Box 462, SE 413 46, Gothenburg, Sweden. firstname.lastname@example.orgShow MeSH
Mentions: A splits network (Fig. 2a) was initially constructed for 1,000 bootstrap replicates of the concatenated segments A1, A2, B and C of 24 IncP-1 plasmids (plasmid pEST4011 was excluded from the analysis as it lacks the genes in A2). The network, which presents a combinatorial generalization of phylogenetic trees, presented a star-like topology with seven main clades. pMCBF1 formed a novel clade, hereafter called ζ. As visible in a previous study26, the β-clade16 could be divided into two subclades, β-1 and β-2. Parallel edges in the phylogenetic network indicated, however, conflicting phylogenetic signals, possibly resulting from homologous recombination. In particular, in addition to plasmid pIJB1, plasmid pAOVO02 was a putative recombinant, not clustering to any of the above-described clades. A second network, excluding these two plasmids, was therefore constructed for comparison (Fig. 2b).
Affiliation: Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Microbiology, University of Gothenburg, Box 462, SE 413 46, Gothenburg, Sweden. email@example.com