The importance of structured noise in the generation of self-organizing tissue patterns through contact-mediated cell-cell signalling.
Bottom Line: Here, we develop a general model of protrusion-based patterning to analyse the role of noise in this process.By analysing the effects of introducing thresholds required for signal detection in this model of lateral inhibition, our study shows how filopodia-mediated cell-cell communication can generate complex patterns of spots and stripes, which, in the presence of signalling noise, align themselves across a patterning field.Thus, intermittent protrusion-based signalling has the potential to yield robust self-organizing tissue-wide patterns without the need to invoke diffusion-mediated signalling.
Affiliation: CoMPLEX, University College London, London, UK. email@example.comShow MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus
Mentions: To further investigate the dynamics of this process, we carried out simulations at different lattice sizes and boundary types. Figure 6 shows the results of when noisy signalling was implemented with second neighbour shell communication and an inhibition threshold of nine signalling cells (see also electronic supplementary material, movie M2). In the smaller array with fixed boundaries (figure 6a), the stripes align themselves to the cell boundaries (at which there was no signal). In a large array with toroidal boundaries (figure 6b), regions of alignment emerge. This demonstrates that the tendency for stripes to locally align is an inherent property of the system that is not boundary dependent. However, in the smaller array, the fixed boundaries bias the orientation of this local effect. Note that when simulations were implemented in a large array with fixed boundaries (data not shown) stripes close to boundaries aligned with them; however, stripes in the central field aligned themselves in arbitrary directions within distinct regions (as in figure 6b). We think it probable that, based upon the scale of most biological patterns [3,40], boundary effects will be significant in most developmental systems (as in figure 6a).Figure 6.
Affiliation: CoMPLEX, University College London, London, UK. firstname.lastname@example.org