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Evaluation of the Perkins handheld applanation tonometer in horses and cattle.

Andrade SF, Kupper DS, Pinho LF, Franco EC, Prataviera MV, Duarte RR, Junqueira JR - J. Vet. Sci. (2011)

Bottom Line: IOP was measured postmortem using direct manometry (measured with an aneroid manometer) and tonometry (measured with a Perkins handheld applanation tonometer).In cattle, IOP was found to be 19.7 ± 1.2 mmHg (range 18.0~22.0 mmHg) by manometry and 18.8 ± 1.7 mmHg (range 15.9~20.8 mmHg) by tonometry.Our results demonstrate that the Perkins handheld tonometer could be an additional tool for accurately measuring IOP in equine and bovine eyes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Small Animal Medicine, University of Oeste Paulista, Rodovia Raposo Tavares, km 572, CEP 19001-970, Presidente Prudente, Brazil. silviafranco@unoeste.br

ABSTRACT
The objective of this study was to evaluate and validate the accuracy of the Perkins handheld applanation tonometer for measuring intraocular pressure (IOP) in horses and cattle. Both eyes of 10 adult horses and cattle were evaluated in a postmortem study. The eyes from 10 clinically normal adult horses and cattle were also examined after bilateral auriculopalpebral nerve block and topical anesthesia for an in vivo study. IOP was measured postmortem using direct manometry (measured with an aneroid manometer) and tonometry (measured with a Perkins handheld applanation tonometer). The correlation coefficients (r(2)) for the data from the postmortem manometry and Perkins tonometer study were 0.866 for horses and 0.864 for cattle. In the in vivo study, IOP in horses was 25.1 ± 2.9 mmHg (range 19.0~30.0 mmHg) as measured by manometry and 23.4 ± 3.2 mmHg (range 18.6~28.4 mmHg) according to tonometry. In cattle, IOP was found to be 19.7 ± 1.2 mmHg (range 18.0~22.0 mmHg) by manometry and 18.8 ± 1.7 mmHg (range 15.9~20.8 mmHg) by tonometry. There was a strong correlation between the IOP values obtained by direct ocular manometry and the tonometer in both horses and cattle. Our results demonstrate that the Perkins handheld tonometer could be an additional tool for accurately measuring IOP in equine and bovine eyes.

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In vivo study in horses. (A) Auriculopalpebral nerve block anesthesia with 10 mL of lidocaine 2%. (B) Topical anesthesia with two eye drops of 1% tetracaine. (C) Fluorescein eye drop. (D) Perkins tonometer IOP reading. (E) Cannulation of the anterior chamber. (F) Aneroid manometer IOP reading of 20 mmHg.
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Figure 2: In vivo study in horses. (A) Auriculopalpebral nerve block anesthesia with 10 mL of lidocaine 2%. (B) Topical anesthesia with two eye drops of 1% tetracaine. (C) Fluorescein eye drop. (D) Perkins tonometer IOP reading. (E) Cannulation of the anterior chamber. (F) Aneroid manometer IOP reading of 20 mmHg.

Mentions: For the in vivo study (Figs. 2 and 3), the horses were led into a solid-sided restraint cage with a bar in front and a bar or solid gate behind. If necessary, the horse's head was positioned above the level of the heart for measuring IOP with the Perkins tonometer and manometer by using a twitch on the upper lip. The procedures to measure IOP in the horses and cattle always started at 8.00 a.m. and ended at 10.00 a.m. The cattle were guided into a funnel corral and then restrained with a neck yoke. Bilateral auriculopalpebral nerve blocks with 10 mL of 2% lidocaine HCl (Hipolabor, Brazil) and bilateral topical anesthesia with two drops of tetracaine 1% (Anestesico; Allergan, Brazil) were applied to all animals. To avoid transmission of infectious ocular diseases, the prism from the Perkins tonometer was removed and washed in physiological saline solution after each use. It was then submerged for 10 min in a solution of 3% hydrogen peroxide, washed again in a physiological saline solution, and then dried with sterile gauze [13].


Evaluation of the Perkins handheld applanation tonometer in horses and cattle.

Andrade SF, Kupper DS, Pinho LF, Franco EC, Prataviera MV, Duarte RR, Junqueira JR - J. Vet. Sci. (2011)

In vivo study in horses. (A) Auriculopalpebral nerve block anesthesia with 10 mL of lidocaine 2%. (B) Topical anesthesia with two eye drops of 1% tetracaine. (C) Fluorescein eye drop. (D) Perkins tonometer IOP reading. (E) Cannulation of the anterior chamber. (F) Aneroid manometer IOP reading of 20 mmHg.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3104172&req=5

Figure 2: In vivo study in horses. (A) Auriculopalpebral nerve block anesthesia with 10 mL of lidocaine 2%. (B) Topical anesthesia with two eye drops of 1% tetracaine. (C) Fluorescein eye drop. (D) Perkins tonometer IOP reading. (E) Cannulation of the anterior chamber. (F) Aneroid manometer IOP reading of 20 mmHg.
Mentions: For the in vivo study (Figs. 2 and 3), the horses were led into a solid-sided restraint cage with a bar in front and a bar or solid gate behind. If necessary, the horse's head was positioned above the level of the heart for measuring IOP with the Perkins tonometer and manometer by using a twitch on the upper lip. The procedures to measure IOP in the horses and cattle always started at 8.00 a.m. and ended at 10.00 a.m. The cattle were guided into a funnel corral and then restrained with a neck yoke. Bilateral auriculopalpebral nerve blocks with 10 mL of 2% lidocaine HCl (Hipolabor, Brazil) and bilateral topical anesthesia with two drops of tetracaine 1% (Anestesico; Allergan, Brazil) were applied to all animals. To avoid transmission of infectious ocular diseases, the prism from the Perkins tonometer was removed and washed in physiological saline solution after each use. It was then submerged for 10 min in a solution of 3% hydrogen peroxide, washed again in a physiological saline solution, and then dried with sterile gauze [13].

Bottom Line: IOP was measured postmortem using direct manometry (measured with an aneroid manometer) and tonometry (measured with a Perkins handheld applanation tonometer).In cattle, IOP was found to be 19.7 ± 1.2 mmHg (range 18.0~22.0 mmHg) by manometry and 18.8 ± 1.7 mmHg (range 15.9~20.8 mmHg) by tonometry.Our results demonstrate that the Perkins handheld tonometer could be an additional tool for accurately measuring IOP in equine and bovine eyes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Small Animal Medicine, University of Oeste Paulista, Rodovia Raposo Tavares, km 572, CEP 19001-970, Presidente Prudente, Brazil. silviafranco@unoeste.br

ABSTRACT
The objective of this study was to evaluate and validate the accuracy of the Perkins handheld applanation tonometer for measuring intraocular pressure (IOP) in horses and cattle. Both eyes of 10 adult horses and cattle were evaluated in a postmortem study. The eyes from 10 clinically normal adult horses and cattle were also examined after bilateral auriculopalpebral nerve block and topical anesthesia for an in vivo study. IOP was measured postmortem using direct manometry (measured with an aneroid manometer) and tonometry (measured with a Perkins handheld applanation tonometer). The correlation coefficients (r(2)) for the data from the postmortem manometry and Perkins tonometer study were 0.866 for horses and 0.864 for cattle. In the in vivo study, IOP in horses was 25.1 ± 2.9 mmHg (range 19.0~30.0 mmHg) as measured by manometry and 23.4 ± 3.2 mmHg (range 18.6~28.4 mmHg) according to tonometry. In cattle, IOP was found to be 19.7 ± 1.2 mmHg (range 18.0~22.0 mmHg) by manometry and 18.8 ± 1.7 mmHg (range 15.9~20.8 mmHg) by tonometry. There was a strong correlation between the IOP values obtained by direct ocular manometry and the tonometer in both horses and cattle. Our results demonstrate that the Perkins handheld tonometer could be an additional tool for accurately measuring IOP in equine and bovine eyes.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus