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Real time observation of mouse fetal skeleton using a high resolution X-ray synchrotron.

Chang DW, Kim B, Shin JH, Yun YM, Je JH, Hwu YK, Yoon JH, Seong JK - J. Vet. Sci. (2011)

Bottom Line: At the same time, conventional radiography and mammography were used to compare with X-ray synchrotron.Synchrotron radiation systems facilitate real time observations of the fetal skeleton with greater accuracy and magnification compared to mammography and conventional radiography.Our results show that X-ray synchrotron systems can be used to observe the fine structures of internal organs at high magnification.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Radiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763, Korea.

ABSTRACT
The X-ray synchrotron is quite different from conventional radiation sources. This technique may expand the capabilities of conventional radiology and be applied in novel manners for special cases. To evaluate the usefulness of X-ray synchrotron radiation systems for real time observations, mouse fetal skeleton development was monitored with a high resolution X-ray synchrotron. A non-monochromatized X-ray synchrotron (white beam, 5C1 beamline) was employed to observe the skeleton of mice under anesthesia at embryonic day (E)12, E14, E15, and E18. At the same time, conventional radiography and mammography were used to compare with X-ray synchrotron. After synchrotron radiation, each mouse was sacrificed and stained with Alizarin red S and Alcian blue to observe bony structures. Synchrotron radiation enabled us to view the mouse fetal skeleton beginning at gestation. Synchrotron radiation systems facilitate real time observations of the fetal skeleton with greater accuracy and magnification compared to mammography and conventional radiography. Our results show that X-ray synchrotron systems can be used to observe the fine structures of internal organs at high magnification.

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Photographs of a fetus removed from a pregnant mouse at E18. The fetus was stained with Alizarin red S and Alcian blue. It was about 18 mm in length from crown to rump. Rectangles represent the field of views imaged by synchrotron radiation. A-I: comparisons of synchrotron radiation (1) and double-staining (2) images of the fetal mouse at E18, A: The fetal metatarsus showed calcified metatarsal bones (arrow), B: Distal femur (arrow), proximal tibia (white arrow), and fibula (arrowhead), C: Distal humerus (arrow), proximal radius (arrowhead), and ulna (white arrow), D: Scapula (arrow), proximal humerus (arrowhead), and spinous process of the scapula (white arrow), E: Mandible (arrow) and nasal bone (white arrow), F: Atlas (arrow) and foramen magnum (white arrow), G: Last rib (arrow) and first lumbar vertebra (white arrows), H: Body of ilium (arrow), sacrum (white arrow), I: Pubis (arrow), sacrum (white arrow) and ischium (arrowhead).
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Figure 6: Photographs of a fetus removed from a pregnant mouse at E18. The fetus was stained with Alizarin red S and Alcian blue. It was about 18 mm in length from crown to rump. Rectangles represent the field of views imaged by synchrotron radiation. A-I: comparisons of synchrotron radiation (1) and double-staining (2) images of the fetal mouse at E18, A: The fetal metatarsus showed calcified metatarsal bones (arrow), B: Distal femur (arrow), proximal tibia (white arrow), and fibula (arrowhead), C: Distal humerus (arrow), proximal radius (arrowhead), and ulna (white arrow), D: Scapula (arrow), proximal humerus (arrowhead), and spinous process of the scapula (white arrow), E: Mandible (arrow) and nasal bone (white arrow), F: Atlas (arrow) and foramen magnum (white arrow), G: Last rib (arrow) and first lumbar vertebra (white arrows), H: Body of ilium (arrow), sacrum (white arrow), I: Pubis (arrow), sacrum (white arrow) and ischium (arrowhead).

Mentions: Double-staining the fetal mice with Alcian blue and Alizarin red S showed that rib were not identifiable at E14 although a lack of staining does not necessarily indicate a lack of rib formation (Fig. 4A). However, calcified ribs and thoracic vertebrae were stained red at E18 (Fig. 5A). Ossified metatarsus, tibia, fibula, pelvis, scapula, humerus, ulna, radius, and skull were also observed at this stage in the double-stained fetal mice (Fig. 6). Synchrotron radiation imaging of the fetus removed from the uterus at E18 showed the ossified bony structures similar to the ones observed by double-staining an age-matched mouse fetus (Fig. 6).


Real time observation of mouse fetal skeleton using a high resolution X-ray synchrotron.

Chang DW, Kim B, Shin JH, Yun YM, Je JH, Hwu YK, Yoon JH, Seong JK - J. Vet. Sci. (2011)

Photographs of a fetus removed from a pregnant mouse at E18. The fetus was stained with Alizarin red S and Alcian blue. It was about 18 mm in length from crown to rump. Rectangles represent the field of views imaged by synchrotron radiation. A-I: comparisons of synchrotron radiation (1) and double-staining (2) images of the fetal mouse at E18, A: The fetal metatarsus showed calcified metatarsal bones (arrow), B: Distal femur (arrow), proximal tibia (white arrow), and fibula (arrowhead), C: Distal humerus (arrow), proximal radius (arrowhead), and ulna (white arrow), D: Scapula (arrow), proximal humerus (arrowhead), and spinous process of the scapula (white arrow), E: Mandible (arrow) and nasal bone (white arrow), F: Atlas (arrow) and foramen magnum (white arrow), G: Last rib (arrow) and first lumbar vertebra (white arrows), H: Body of ilium (arrow), sacrum (white arrow), I: Pubis (arrow), sacrum (white arrow) and ischium (arrowhead).
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Figure 6: Photographs of a fetus removed from a pregnant mouse at E18. The fetus was stained with Alizarin red S and Alcian blue. It was about 18 mm in length from crown to rump. Rectangles represent the field of views imaged by synchrotron radiation. A-I: comparisons of synchrotron radiation (1) and double-staining (2) images of the fetal mouse at E18, A: The fetal metatarsus showed calcified metatarsal bones (arrow), B: Distal femur (arrow), proximal tibia (white arrow), and fibula (arrowhead), C: Distal humerus (arrow), proximal radius (arrowhead), and ulna (white arrow), D: Scapula (arrow), proximal humerus (arrowhead), and spinous process of the scapula (white arrow), E: Mandible (arrow) and nasal bone (white arrow), F: Atlas (arrow) and foramen magnum (white arrow), G: Last rib (arrow) and first lumbar vertebra (white arrows), H: Body of ilium (arrow), sacrum (white arrow), I: Pubis (arrow), sacrum (white arrow) and ischium (arrowhead).
Mentions: Double-staining the fetal mice with Alcian blue and Alizarin red S showed that rib were not identifiable at E14 although a lack of staining does not necessarily indicate a lack of rib formation (Fig. 4A). However, calcified ribs and thoracic vertebrae were stained red at E18 (Fig. 5A). Ossified metatarsus, tibia, fibula, pelvis, scapula, humerus, ulna, radius, and skull were also observed at this stage in the double-stained fetal mice (Fig. 6). Synchrotron radiation imaging of the fetus removed from the uterus at E18 showed the ossified bony structures similar to the ones observed by double-staining an age-matched mouse fetus (Fig. 6).

Bottom Line: At the same time, conventional radiography and mammography were used to compare with X-ray synchrotron.Synchrotron radiation systems facilitate real time observations of the fetal skeleton with greater accuracy and magnification compared to mammography and conventional radiography.Our results show that X-ray synchrotron systems can be used to observe the fine structures of internal organs at high magnification.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Radiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763, Korea.

ABSTRACT
The X-ray synchrotron is quite different from conventional radiation sources. This technique may expand the capabilities of conventional radiology and be applied in novel manners for special cases. To evaluate the usefulness of X-ray synchrotron radiation systems for real time observations, mouse fetal skeleton development was monitored with a high resolution X-ray synchrotron. A non-monochromatized X-ray synchrotron (white beam, 5C1 beamline) was employed to observe the skeleton of mice under anesthesia at embryonic day (E)12, E14, E15, and E18. At the same time, conventional radiography and mammography were used to compare with X-ray synchrotron. After synchrotron radiation, each mouse was sacrificed and stained with Alizarin red S and Alcian blue to observe bony structures. Synchrotron radiation enabled us to view the mouse fetal skeleton beginning at gestation. Synchrotron radiation systems facilitate real time observations of the fetal skeleton with greater accuracy and magnification compared to mammography and conventional radiography. Our results show that X-ray synchrotron systems can be used to observe the fine structures of internal organs at high magnification.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus