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Real time observation of mouse fetal skeleton using a high resolution X-ray synchrotron.

Chang DW, Kim B, Shin JH, Yun YM, Je JH, Hwu YK, Yoon JH, Seong JK - J. Vet. Sci. (2011)

Bottom Line: At the same time, conventional radiography and mammography were used to compare with X-ray synchrotron.Synchrotron radiation systems facilitate real time observations of the fetal skeleton with greater accuracy and magnification compared to mammography and conventional radiography.Our results show that X-ray synchrotron systems can be used to observe the fine structures of internal organs at high magnification.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Radiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763, Korea.

ABSTRACT
The X-ray synchrotron is quite different from conventional radiation sources. This technique may expand the capabilities of conventional radiology and be applied in novel manners for special cases. To evaluate the usefulness of X-ray synchrotron radiation systems for real time observations, mouse fetal skeleton development was monitored with a high resolution X-ray synchrotron. A non-monochromatized X-ray synchrotron (white beam, 5C1 beamline) was employed to observe the skeleton of mice under anesthesia at embryonic day (E)12, E14, E15, and E18. At the same time, conventional radiography and mammography were used to compare with X-ray synchrotron. After synchrotron radiation, each mouse was sacrificed and stained with Alizarin red S and Alcian blue to observe bony structures. Synchrotron radiation enabled us to view the mouse fetal skeleton beginning at gestation. Synchrotron radiation systems facilitate real time observations of the fetal skeleton with greater accuracy and magnification compared to mammography and conventional radiography. Our results show that X-ray synchrotron systems can be used to observe the fine structures of internal organs at high magnification.

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Schematic diagram of the experimental set-up. Polychromatic X-rays (A), are emitted from the bending magnet device (b) of the storage ring (a) then pass through two slits (c: fixed one in the vacuum, d: changeable in the air) to control the beam size, attenuator set (e) for acquiring a good background image, and sample (f). The X-rays are processed by the scintillator (g) and the resulting image information is then converted into visible light (B). This visible light is magnified (C) by lens (i) after being reflected by the mirror (h) and transmitted to a computer or digital video recorder by the CCD camera (j).
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Figure 1: Schematic diagram of the experimental set-up. Polychromatic X-rays (A), are emitted from the bending magnet device (b) of the storage ring (a) then pass through two slits (c: fixed one in the vacuum, d: changeable in the air) to control the beam size, attenuator set (e) for acquiring a good background image, and sample (f). The X-rays are processed by the scintillator (g) and the resulting image information is then converted into visible light (B). This visible light is magnified (C) by lens (i) after being reflected by the mirror (h) and transmitted to a computer or digital video recorder by the CCD camera (j).

Mentions: We examined the animals using a Min-R Screen-Film system (Eastman Kodak, USA) and conventional mammography equipment (Performa; GE Healthcare, USA) with 24 kVp, 60 mA and 0.5 sec of exposure time. The film was processed with and automatic processor (Model 2000; Kodak, USA). The experiments were carried out on a 5C1 beamline at the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory (Pohang University of Science and Technology, Korea) with a 2.5 GeV, 150 mA storage ring current, and 1.32 T magnetic field. The electric field was used with S type of polarization in the plane of ring. Since longitudinal coherence is not a stringent requirement for refractive index radiology, non-monochromatized ("white") light was used with no optical elements except beryllium windows. After the beam went through the window into air, we introduced slit and attenuator systems to minimize damage associated with the scintillator and to prevent background image over-saturation. The detection system was based on a CdWO4 single crystal scintillator cleaved to a thickness of <100 µm of silica which was resistant to radiation damage and highly homogeneous. The high-resolution radiograph on the scintillator was magnified with an optical lens, captured by a commercial-grade CCD video camera (IK-536; Toshiba, Japan), and recorded with a digital video recorder (GV-D300; Sony, Japan). To prevent oversaturation, an ND4 filter and 52S polarizer (Kenko, Japan) were used (Fig. 1). The background image obtained just before fetus imaging was stored as a digital image and a temporal subtraction image using a computer. After synchrotron radiation imaging, one mouse was randomly selected and euthanized on gestation day 18 and its fetuses were removed for synchrotron radiation analysis.


Real time observation of mouse fetal skeleton using a high resolution X-ray synchrotron.

Chang DW, Kim B, Shin JH, Yun YM, Je JH, Hwu YK, Yoon JH, Seong JK - J. Vet. Sci. (2011)

Schematic diagram of the experimental set-up. Polychromatic X-rays (A), are emitted from the bending magnet device (b) of the storage ring (a) then pass through two slits (c: fixed one in the vacuum, d: changeable in the air) to control the beam size, attenuator set (e) for acquiring a good background image, and sample (f). The X-rays are processed by the scintillator (g) and the resulting image information is then converted into visible light (B). This visible light is magnified (C) by lens (i) after being reflected by the mirror (h) and transmitted to a computer or digital video recorder by the CCD camera (j).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3104163&req=5

Figure 1: Schematic diagram of the experimental set-up. Polychromatic X-rays (A), are emitted from the bending magnet device (b) of the storage ring (a) then pass through two slits (c: fixed one in the vacuum, d: changeable in the air) to control the beam size, attenuator set (e) for acquiring a good background image, and sample (f). The X-rays are processed by the scintillator (g) and the resulting image information is then converted into visible light (B). This visible light is magnified (C) by lens (i) after being reflected by the mirror (h) and transmitted to a computer or digital video recorder by the CCD camera (j).
Mentions: We examined the animals using a Min-R Screen-Film system (Eastman Kodak, USA) and conventional mammography equipment (Performa; GE Healthcare, USA) with 24 kVp, 60 mA and 0.5 sec of exposure time. The film was processed with and automatic processor (Model 2000; Kodak, USA). The experiments were carried out on a 5C1 beamline at the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory (Pohang University of Science and Technology, Korea) with a 2.5 GeV, 150 mA storage ring current, and 1.32 T magnetic field. The electric field was used with S type of polarization in the plane of ring. Since longitudinal coherence is not a stringent requirement for refractive index radiology, non-monochromatized ("white") light was used with no optical elements except beryllium windows. After the beam went through the window into air, we introduced slit and attenuator systems to minimize damage associated with the scintillator and to prevent background image over-saturation. The detection system was based on a CdWO4 single crystal scintillator cleaved to a thickness of <100 µm of silica which was resistant to radiation damage and highly homogeneous. The high-resolution radiograph on the scintillator was magnified with an optical lens, captured by a commercial-grade CCD video camera (IK-536; Toshiba, Japan), and recorded with a digital video recorder (GV-D300; Sony, Japan). To prevent oversaturation, an ND4 filter and 52S polarizer (Kenko, Japan) were used (Fig. 1). The background image obtained just before fetus imaging was stored as a digital image and a temporal subtraction image using a computer. After synchrotron radiation imaging, one mouse was randomly selected and euthanized on gestation day 18 and its fetuses were removed for synchrotron radiation analysis.

Bottom Line: At the same time, conventional radiography and mammography were used to compare with X-ray synchrotron.Synchrotron radiation systems facilitate real time observations of the fetal skeleton with greater accuracy and magnification compared to mammography and conventional radiography.Our results show that X-ray synchrotron systems can be used to observe the fine structures of internal organs at high magnification.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Radiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763, Korea.

ABSTRACT
The X-ray synchrotron is quite different from conventional radiation sources. This technique may expand the capabilities of conventional radiology and be applied in novel manners for special cases. To evaluate the usefulness of X-ray synchrotron radiation systems for real time observations, mouse fetal skeleton development was monitored with a high resolution X-ray synchrotron. A non-monochromatized X-ray synchrotron (white beam, 5C1 beamline) was employed to observe the skeleton of mice under anesthesia at embryonic day (E)12, E14, E15, and E18. At the same time, conventional radiography and mammography were used to compare with X-ray synchrotron. After synchrotron radiation, each mouse was sacrificed and stained with Alizarin red S and Alcian blue to observe bony structures. Synchrotron radiation enabled us to view the mouse fetal skeleton beginning at gestation. Synchrotron radiation systems facilitate real time observations of the fetal skeleton with greater accuracy and magnification compared to mammography and conventional radiography. Our results show that X-ray synchrotron systems can be used to observe the fine structures of internal organs at high magnification.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus