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The evolution of the plastid chromosome in land plants: gene content, gene order, gene function.

Wicke S, Schneeweiss GM, dePamphilis CW, Müller KF, Quandt D - Plant Mol. Biol. (2011)

Bottom Line: These include the organization of plastid genes in operons, the usually uniparental mode of plastid inheritance, the activity of highly effective repair mechanisms as well as the rarity of plastid fusion.Nevertheless, structurally rearranged plastomes can be found in several unrelated lineages (e.g. ferns, Pinaceae, multiple angiosperm families).Patterns of ndh-gene loss and functional analyses indicate that these losses are usually found in plant groups with a certain degree of heterotrophy, might rendering plastid encoded Ndh1 subunits dispensable.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biogeography and Botanical Garden, University of Vienna, Rennweg 14, 1030 Vienna, Austria. susann.wicke@uni-muenster.de

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Evolution of plastid gene content in land plants. Events of gene losses in Embryophytes, as well as gains and duplication of protein coding genes in green plant lineages are depicted along the branches/nodes of the Plant Tree of Life (Palmer et al. 2004; Qiu et al. 2006; Zhong et al. 2010). The putatively ancestral gene content, as reflected in Marchantia and derived from parsimony analysis after Maul et al. (2002), is given at the first land plant node. Gene losses during the evolution of land plants are indicated by red arrows (those occurring before the emergence of Embryophytes are not considered here); a green arrow indicates the evolution of a novel gene prior to the transition to land; blue arrows refer to gene duplications. Changes in the content of transfer RNAs are not considered here (refer to Gao et al. 2010 for review). A detailed summary of gene losses during the evolution of angiosperms is provided by Jansen et al. (2007) and Magee et al. (2010). Although chl-subunits are still present in some gymnosperm plastomes, multiple losses and pseudogenizations indicate a functional transfer to the nuclear genome. As chl genes have been lost entirely from angiosperm plastomes, functional chl-gene transfer might have already occurred in a common ancestor
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Fig1: Evolution of plastid gene content in land plants. Events of gene losses in Embryophytes, as well as gains and duplication of protein coding genes in green plant lineages are depicted along the branches/nodes of the Plant Tree of Life (Palmer et al. 2004; Qiu et al. 2006; Zhong et al. 2010). The putatively ancestral gene content, as reflected in Marchantia and derived from parsimony analysis after Maul et al. (2002), is given at the first land plant node. Gene losses during the evolution of land plants are indicated by red arrows (those occurring before the emergence of Embryophytes are not considered here); a green arrow indicates the evolution of a novel gene prior to the transition to land; blue arrows refer to gene duplications. Changes in the content of transfer RNAs are not considered here (refer to Gao et al. 2010 for review). A detailed summary of gene losses during the evolution of angiosperms is provided by Jansen et al. (2007) and Magee et al. (2010). Although chl-subunits are still present in some gymnosperm plastomes, multiple losses and pseudogenizations indicate a functional transfer to the nuclear genome. As chl genes have been lost entirely from angiosperm plastomes, functional chl-gene transfer might have already occurred in a common ancestor

Mentions: Plastids are one of the main distinguishing characteristics of the plant cell. The central function of the plastid is to carry out photosynthesis, but other major cellular functions also take place in plastids, including synthesis of starch, fatty acids, pigments and amino acids (reviewed by Neuhaus and Emes 2010). As early as 1905, Konstantin S. Mereschkowski hypothesized that plant “chromatophores” are the result of the uptake of a cyanobacterium by a eukaryotic organism (English translation available by Martin and Kowallik 1999). It is now generally accepted that the plastid originated via incorporation of a free-living cyanobacterial-like prokaryote into a eukaryotic cell (primary endosymbiosis), thereby enabling the transition from heterotrophy to autotrophy by gaining the ability of utilizing photoenergy. Recent phylogenetic analyses of plastid genes from major plant lineages have converged on the hypothesis that plastids of the plant kingdom, i.e. the clade including Glaucophytes, Rhodophytes, Chlorophytes, and Streptophytes (Fig. 1; Keeling 2004), are derived from a single origin (Palmer 2000; McFadden and van Dooren 2004; Keeling 2010). This is also supported by several biochemical features, such as the composition of light harvesting complexes and their components, structural RNAs, membrane structure, and the protein import/targeting machinery (Weeden 1981; Bölter et al. 1998; Keeling 2004; Yang and Cheng 2004; Koziol et al. 2007; Vesteg et al. 2009).Fig. 1


The evolution of the plastid chromosome in land plants: gene content, gene order, gene function.

Wicke S, Schneeweiss GM, dePamphilis CW, Müller KF, Quandt D - Plant Mol. Biol. (2011)

Evolution of plastid gene content in land plants. Events of gene losses in Embryophytes, as well as gains and duplication of protein coding genes in green plant lineages are depicted along the branches/nodes of the Plant Tree of Life (Palmer et al. 2004; Qiu et al. 2006; Zhong et al. 2010). The putatively ancestral gene content, as reflected in Marchantia and derived from parsimony analysis after Maul et al. (2002), is given at the first land plant node. Gene losses during the evolution of land plants are indicated by red arrows (those occurring before the emergence of Embryophytes are not considered here); a green arrow indicates the evolution of a novel gene prior to the transition to land; blue arrows refer to gene duplications. Changes in the content of transfer RNAs are not considered here (refer to Gao et al. 2010 for review). A detailed summary of gene losses during the evolution of angiosperms is provided by Jansen et al. (2007) and Magee et al. (2010). Although chl-subunits are still present in some gymnosperm plastomes, multiple losses and pseudogenizations indicate a functional transfer to the nuclear genome. As chl genes have been lost entirely from angiosperm plastomes, functional chl-gene transfer might have already occurred in a common ancestor
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3104136&req=5

Fig1: Evolution of plastid gene content in land plants. Events of gene losses in Embryophytes, as well as gains and duplication of protein coding genes in green plant lineages are depicted along the branches/nodes of the Plant Tree of Life (Palmer et al. 2004; Qiu et al. 2006; Zhong et al. 2010). The putatively ancestral gene content, as reflected in Marchantia and derived from parsimony analysis after Maul et al. (2002), is given at the first land plant node. Gene losses during the evolution of land plants are indicated by red arrows (those occurring before the emergence of Embryophytes are not considered here); a green arrow indicates the evolution of a novel gene prior to the transition to land; blue arrows refer to gene duplications. Changes in the content of transfer RNAs are not considered here (refer to Gao et al. 2010 for review). A detailed summary of gene losses during the evolution of angiosperms is provided by Jansen et al. (2007) and Magee et al. (2010). Although chl-subunits are still present in some gymnosperm plastomes, multiple losses and pseudogenizations indicate a functional transfer to the nuclear genome. As chl genes have been lost entirely from angiosperm plastomes, functional chl-gene transfer might have already occurred in a common ancestor
Mentions: Plastids are one of the main distinguishing characteristics of the plant cell. The central function of the plastid is to carry out photosynthesis, but other major cellular functions also take place in plastids, including synthesis of starch, fatty acids, pigments and amino acids (reviewed by Neuhaus and Emes 2010). As early as 1905, Konstantin S. Mereschkowski hypothesized that plant “chromatophores” are the result of the uptake of a cyanobacterium by a eukaryotic organism (English translation available by Martin and Kowallik 1999). It is now generally accepted that the plastid originated via incorporation of a free-living cyanobacterial-like prokaryote into a eukaryotic cell (primary endosymbiosis), thereby enabling the transition from heterotrophy to autotrophy by gaining the ability of utilizing photoenergy. Recent phylogenetic analyses of plastid genes from major plant lineages have converged on the hypothesis that plastids of the plant kingdom, i.e. the clade including Glaucophytes, Rhodophytes, Chlorophytes, and Streptophytes (Fig. 1; Keeling 2004), are derived from a single origin (Palmer 2000; McFadden and van Dooren 2004; Keeling 2010). This is also supported by several biochemical features, such as the composition of light harvesting complexes and their components, structural RNAs, membrane structure, and the protein import/targeting machinery (Weeden 1981; Bölter et al. 1998; Keeling 2004; Yang and Cheng 2004; Koziol et al. 2007; Vesteg et al. 2009).Fig. 1

Bottom Line: These include the organization of plastid genes in operons, the usually uniparental mode of plastid inheritance, the activity of highly effective repair mechanisms as well as the rarity of plastid fusion.Nevertheless, structurally rearranged plastomes can be found in several unrelated lineages (e.g. ferns, Pinaceae, multiple angiosperm families).Patterns of ndh-gene loss and functional analyses indicate that these losses are usually found in plant groups with a certain degree of heterotrophy, might rendering plastid encoded Ndh1 subunits dispensable.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biogeography and Botanical Garden, University of Vienna, Rennweg 14, 1030 Vienna, Austria. susann.wicke@uni-muenster.de

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus