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The merging of two dynasties--identification of an African cotton leaf curl disease-associated begomovirus with cotton in Pakistan.

Tahir MN, Amin I, Briddon RW, Mansoor S - PLoS ONE (2011)

Bottom Line: However, the cognate African betasatellite (Cotton leaf curl Gezira betasatellite) was not found.Instead, two Asian betasatellites, the CLCuD-associated Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB) and Chilli leaf curl betasatellite (ChLCB) were identified.Also in infections involving both CLCuMB and ChLCB the enations typical of CLCuMB were less evident.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Agricultural Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT
Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) is a severe disease of cotton that occurs in Africa and Pakistan/northwestern India. The disease is caused by begomoviruses in association with specific betasatellites that differ between Africa and Asia. During survey of symptomatic cotton in Sindh (southern Pakistan) Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (CLCuGV), the begomovirus associated with CLCuD in Africa, was identified. However, the cognate African betasatellite (Cotton leaf curl Gezira betasatellite) was not found. Instead, two Asian betasatellites, the CLCuD-associated Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB) and Chilli leaf curl betasatellite (ChLCB) were identified. Inoculation of the experimental plant species Nicotiana benthamiana showed that CLCuGV was competent to maintain both CLCuMB and ChLCB. Interestingly, the enations typical of CLCuD were only induced by CLCuGV in the presence of CLCuMB. Also in infections involving both CLCuMB and ChLCB the enations typical of CLCuMB were less evident. This is the first time an African begomovirus has been identified on the Indian sub-continent, highlight the growing threat of begomoviruses and particularly the threat of CLCuD causing viruses to cotton cultivation in the rest of the world.

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The begomovirus affecting cotton in Sindh likely originates from Egypt.Neigbour-joining phylogenetic dendrogram based upon an alignment of all complete genome nucleotide sequences of Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (CLCuGV) available in the databases and the two available sequences of Hollyhock leaf crumple virus (the virus species most closely related to CLCuGV) with the sequences isolated from Pakistan. In each case the database accession number is given. The numbers at nodes represent percentage bootstrap confidence scores (1000 replicates). The alignment was arbitrarily rooted on outgroup, the sequence of Tomato pseudo curly top virus (TPCTV), a distantly related geminivirus. The plant species from which viruses were isolated and their geographical origins are indicated; Burkina Faso (BFA). Additionally, the viruses originating from north Africa (N) and from Africa south of the Sahara (S) are indicated.
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pone-0020366-g002: The begomovirus affecting cotton in Sindh likely originates from Egypt.Neigbour-joining phylogenetic dendrogram based upon an alignment of all complete genome nucleotide sequences of Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (CLCuGV) available in the databases and the two available sequences of Hollyhock leaf crumple virus (the virus species most closely related to CLCuGV) with the sequences isolated from Pakistan. In each case the database accession number is given. The numbers at nodes represent percentage bootstrap confidence scores (1000 replicates). The alignment was arbitrarily rooted on outgroup, the sequence of Tomato pseudo curly top virus (TPCTV), a distantly related geminivirus. The plant species from which viruses were isolated and their geographical origins are indicated; Burkina Faso (BFA). Additionally, the viruses originating from north Africa (N) and from Africa south of the Sahara (S) are indicated.

Mentions: In an effort to try and identify the possible origins of the CLCuGV identified in southern Pakistan, all available CLCuGV sequences were aligned and used in a phylogenetic analysis (Figure 2). At this time three strains of CLCuGV are recognized, the “Hollyhock”, “Egypt” and “Sudan” strains [8]. The dendrogram shows the CLCuGV sequences originating from Pakistan to segregate with isolates of the “Egypt” strain of CLCuGV and not those of the “Sudan” strain. These three strains show phylogeographic segregation, the “Hollyhock” and “Egypt” strains occurring in North Africa (specifically Egypt and, more recently, Jordan) and the “Sudan” strain occurring in central Africa, south of the Sahara. It is likely the obstacle caused by the Sahara to whitefly migration that has led to divergence of these two strains from their common ancestor. This finding suggests that the CLCuGV identified in Pakistan has its origins in North Africa, which is supported by the finding that CLCuGV originating from Pakistan has the highest levels of sequence identity to isolates of the “Egypt” strain (Table 1). Overall the Pakistani isolates show the highest levels of nucleotide sequence identity (98.1–98.4%) to CLCuGV-Egypt[Egypt:Aswan:Okra] (AF155064), isolated from okra, but lower levels of identity (97.9–98.2%) to an isolate of CLCuGV from hollyhock from Jordan. This possibly pinpoints Egypt as the original source of CLCuGV in Pakistan.


The merging of two dynasties--identification of an African cotton leaf curl disease-associated begomovirus with cotton in Pakistan.

Tahir MN, Amin I, Briddon RW, Mansoor S - PLoS ONE (2011)

The begomovirus affecting cotton in Sindh likely originates from Egypt.Neigbour-joining phylogenetic dendrogram based upon an alignment of all complete genome nucleotide sequences of Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (CLCuGV) available in the databases and the two available sequences of Hollyhock leaf crumple virus (the virus species most closely related to CLCuGV) with the sequences isolated from Pakistan. In each case the database accession number is given. The numbers at nodes represent percentage bootstrap confidence scores (1000 replicates). The alignment was arbitrarily rooted on outgroup, the sequence of Tomato pseudo curly top virus (TPCTV), a distantly related geminivirus. The plant species from which viruses were isolated and their geographical origins are indicated; Burkina Faso (BFA). Additionally, the viruses originating from north Africa (N) and from Africa south of the Sahara (S) are indicated.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3102712&req=5

pone-0020366-g002: The begomovirus affecting cotton in Sindh likely originates from Egypt.Neigbour-joining phylogenetic dendrogram based upon an alignment of all complete genome nucleotide sequences of Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (CLCuGV) available in the databases and the two available sequences of Hollyhock leaf crumple virus (the virus species most closely related to CLCuGV) with the sequences isolated from Pakistan. In each case the database accession number is given. The numbers at nodes represent percentage bootstrap confidence scores (1000 replicates). The alignment was arbitrarily rooted on outgroup, the sequence of Tomato pseudo curly top virus (TPCTV), a distantly related geminivirus. The plant species from which viruses were isolated and their geographical origins are indicated; Burkina Faso (BFA). Additionally, the viruses originating from north Africa (N) and from Africa south of the Sahara (S) are indicated.
Mentions: In an effort to try and identify the possible origins of the CLCuGV identified in southern Pakistan, all available CLCuGV sequences were aligned and used in a phylogenetic analysis (Figure 2). At this time three strains of CLCuGV are recognized, the “Hollyhock”, “Egypt” and “Sudan” strains [8]. The dendrogram shows the CLCuGV sequences originating from Pakistan to segregate with isolates of the “Egypt” strain of CLCuGV and not those of the “Sudan” strain. These three strains show phylogeographic segregation, the “Hollyhock” and “Egypt” strains occurring in North Africa (specifically Egypt and, more recently, Jordan) and the “Sudan” strain occurring in central Africa, south of the Sahara. It is likely the obstacle caused by the Sahara to whitefly migration that has led to divergence of these two strains from their common ancestor. This finding suggests that the CLCuGV identified in Pakistan has its origins in North Africa, which is supported by the finding that CLCuGV originating from Pakistan has the highest levels of sequence identity to isolates of the “Egypt” strain (Table 1). Overall the Pakistani isolates show the highest levels of nucleotide sequence identity (98.1–98.4%) to CLCuGV-Egypt[Egypt:Aswan:Okra] (AF155064), isolated from okra, but lower levels of identity (97.9–98.2%) to an isolate of CLCuGV from hollyhock from Jordan. This possibly pinpoints Egypt as the original source of CLCuGV in Pakistan.

Bottom Line: However, the cognate African betasatellite (Cotton leaf curl Gezira betasatellite) was not found.Instead, two Asian betasatellites, the CLCuD-associated Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB) and Chilli leaf curl betasatellite (ChLCB) were identified.Also in infections involving both CLCuMB and ChLCB the enations typical of CLCuMB were less evident.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Agricultural Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT
Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) is a severe disease of cotton that occurs in Africa and Pakistan/northwestern India. The disease is caused by begomoviruses in association with specific betasatellites that differ between Africa and Asia. During survey of symptomatic cotton in Sindh (southern Pakistan) Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (CLCuGV), the begomovirus associated with CLCuD in Africa, was identified. However, the cognate African betasatellite (Cotton leaf curl Gezira betasatellite) was not found. Instead, two Asian betasatellites, the CLCuD-associated Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB) and Chilli leaf curl betasatellite (ChLCB) were identified. Inoculation of the experimental plant species Nicotiana benthamiana showed that CLCuGV was competent to maintain both CLCuMB and ChLCB. Interestingly, the enations typical of CLCuD were only induced by CLCuGV in the presence of CLCuMB. Also in infections involving both CLCuMB and ChLCB the enations typical of CLCuMB were less evident. This is the first time an African begomovirus has been identified on the Indian sub-continent, highlight the growing threat of begomoviruses and particularly the threat of CLCuD causing viruses to cotton cultivation in the rest of the world.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus