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Nano-material aspects of shock absorption in bone joints.

Tributsch H, Copf F, Copf P, Hindenlang U, Niethard FU, Schneider R - Open Biomed Eng J (2010)

Bottom Line: This theoretical study is based on a nano-technological evaluation of the effect of pressure on the composite bone fine structure.It may generate electro-kinetic energy in terms of electric currents and potentials.And the resulting specific structural and surface electrochemical changes may induce the compressible intra-osseal liquid to build up pressure dependent free chemical energy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Retired from Free University Berlin, Institute for Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, 14195 Berlin, Takustrasse 3, Germany.

ABSTRACT
This theoretical study is based on a nano-technological evaluation of the effect of pressure on the composite bone fine structure. It turned out, that the well known macroscopic mechano-elastic performance of bones in combination with muscles and tendons is just one functional aspect which is critically supported by additional micro- and nano- shock damping technology aimed at minimising local bone material damage within the joints and supporting spongy bone material. The identified mechanisms comprise essentially three phenomena localised within the three-dimensional spongy structure with channels and so called perforated flexible tensulae membranes of different dimensions intersecting and linking them. Kinetic energy of a mechanical shock may be dissipated within the solid-liquid composite bone structure into heat via the generation of quasi-chaotic hydromechanic micro-turbulence. It may generate electro-kinetic energy in terms of electric currents and potentials. And the resulting specific structural and surface electrochemical changes may induce the compressible intra-osseal liquid to build up pressure dependent free chemical energy. Innovative bone joint prostheses will have to consider and to be adapted to the nano-material aspects of shock absorption in the operated bones.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Scheme, visualizing three mechanisms for the dissipation and transformation of mechanical energy in solid-liquid nano-composite layers of bone joints subject to a pressure difference of ΔP.
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Figure 2: Scheme, visualizing three mechanisms for the dissipation and transformation of mechanical energy in solid-liquid nano-composite layers of bone joints subject to a pressure difference of ΔP.

Mentions: As Fig. (1) shows, bones have a very elaborate microscopic fine structure. What kind of shock absorbing mechanisms could have developed within? The tensulae, for example [3, 5] which were identified within the pressure exposed outer surface of the femur head, are apparently elastic membranes which compartmentalize the porous bone structure further and allow the enclosed liquid to escape through small openings, when pressure is applied. Such a nano and micro-structural internal bone geometry and behaviour may be characterized schematically and in a simplified way by small cylinders, equipped with little openings, as used in macroscopic hydraulic shock absorbers, where a piston is decreasing the liquid volume and forcing it through the openings while dissipating mechanical energy into heat. Such energy dissipating small liquid filled cylinders are schematically shown in Fig. (2) to represent in a simplified way the bone structure during a mechanical shock generating the temporal pressure difference of Δp. When the spongy bone structure containing the liquid filled compartment is compressed, the intra-oseal liquid will redistribute through the escape openings and thus dissipate mechanical energy while liberating heat. This is schematically indicated at the bottom right of Fig. (2). Due to the microscopic structure of the described energy dissipating system the conversion of a stationary liquid into a quasi chaotic turbulent one is to be expected.


Nano-material aspects of shock absorption in bone joints.

Tributsch H, Copf F, Copf P, Hindenlang U, Niethard FU, Schneider R - Open Biomed Eng J (2010)

Scheme, visualizing three mechanisms for the dissipation and transformation of mechanical energy in solid-liquid nano-composite layers of bone joints subject to a pressure difference of ΔP.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3102329&req=5

Figure 2: Scheme, visualizing three mechanisms for the dissipation and transformation of mechanical energy in solid-liquid nano-composite layers of bone joints subject to a pressure difference of ΔP.
Mentions: As Fig. (1) shows, bones have a very elaborate microscopic fine structure. What kind of shock absorbing mechanisms could have developed within? The tensulae, for example [3, 5] which were identified within the pressure exposed outer surface of the femur head, are apparently elastic membranes which compartmentalize the porous bone structure further and allow the enclosed liquid to escape through small openings, when pressure is applied. Such a nano and micro-structural internal bone geometry and behaviour may be characterized schematically and in a simplified way by small cylinders, equipped with little openings, as used in macroscopic hydraulic shock absorbers, where a piston is decreasing the liquid volume and forcing it through the openings while dissipating mechanical energy into heat. Such energy dissipating small liquid filled cylinders are schematically shown in Fig. (2) to represent in a simplified way the bone structure during a mechanical shock generating the temporal pressure difference of Δp. When the spongy bone structure containing the liquid filled compartment is compressed, the intra-oseal liquid will redistribute through the escape openings and thus dissipate mechanical energy while liberating heat. This is schematically indicated at the bottom right of Fig. (2). Due to the microscopic structure of the described energy dissipating system the conversion of a stationary liquid into a quasi chaotic turbulent one is to be expected.

Bottom Line: This theoretical study is based on a nano-technological evaluation of the effect of pressure on the composite bone fine structure.It may generate electro-kinetic energy in terms of electric currents and potentials.And the resulting specific structural and surface electrochemical changes may induce the compressible intra-osseal liquid to build up pressure dependent free chemical energy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Retired from Free University Berlin, Institute for Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, 14195 Berlin, Takustrasse 3, Germany.

ABSTRACT
This theoretical study is based on a nano-technological evaluation of the effect of pressure on the composite bone fine structure. It turned out, that the well known macroscopic mechano-elastic performance of bones in combination with muscles and tendons is just one functional aspect which is critically supported by additional micro- and nano- shock damping technology aimed at minimising local bone material damage within the joints and supporting spongy bone material. The identified mechanisms comprise essentially three phenomena localised within the three-dimensional spongy structure with channels and so called perforated flexible tensulae membranes of different dimensions intersecting and linking them. Kinetic energy of a mechanical shock may be dissipated within the solid-liquid composite bone structure into heat via the generation of quasi-chaotic hydromechanic micro-turbulence. It may generate electro-kinetic energy in terms of electric currents and potentials. And the resulting specific structural and surface electrochemical changes may induce the compressible intra-osseal liquid to build up pressure dependent free chemical energy. Innovative bone joint prostheses will have to consider and to be adapted to the nano-material aspects of shock absorption in the operated bones.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus