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Reevaluation of the value of autoparasitoids in biological control.

Zang LS, Liu TX, Wan FH - PLoS ONE (2011)

Bottom Line: We found that Encarsia sophia, a facultative autoparasitoid, preferred to use heterospecific hosts as secondary hosts for producing males.The autoparasitoids mated with males originated from heterospecifics may parasitize more hosts than those mated with males from conspecifics.The demonstrated preference of an autoparasitoid for heterospecifics and improved performance of males from heterospecifics observed in this study suggests these criteria should be considered in strategies that endeavor to mass-produce and utilize autoparasitoids in the future.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Biological Control, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, China.

ABSTRACT
Autoparasitoids with the capacity of consuming primary parasitoids that share the same hosts to produce males are analogous to intraguild predators. The use of autoparasitoids in biological control programs is a controversial matter because there is little evidence to support the view that autoparasitoids do not disrupt and at times may promote suppression of insect pests in combination with primary parasitoids. We found that Encarsia sophia, a facultative autoparasitoid, preferred to use heterospecific hosts as secondary hosts for producing males. The autoparasitoids mated with males originated from heterospecifics may parasitize more hosts than those mated with males from conspecifics. Provided with an adequate number of males, the autoparasitoids killed more hosts than En. formosa, a commonly used parasitoid for biological control of whiteflies. This study supports the view that autoparasitoids in combination with primary parasitoids do not disrupt pest management and may enhance such programs. The demonstrated preference of an autoparasitoid for heterospecifics and improved performance of males from heterospecifics observed in this study suggests these criteria should be considered in strategies that endeavor to mass-produce and utilize autoparasitoids in the future.

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Proportion of total whitefly nymphs killed due to parasitism and host feeding by En. sophia with different released ratio of male: female and En. formosa.The same letters above bars in each figure indicate that means do not differ significantly (P>0.05, Tukey's HSD test). E.F. - En. formosa.
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pone-0020324-g004: Proportion of total whitefly nymphs killed due to parasitism and host feeding by En. sophia with different released ratio of male: female and En. formosa.The same letters above bars in each figure indicate that means do not differ significantly (P>0.05, Tukey's HSD test). E.F. - En. formosa.

Mentions: The availability of males significantly affected the efficiency of whitefly suppression by En. sophia (F4, 20 = 3.07; P = 0.0402) (Fig. 4). Encarsia sophia released at a male to female ratio of 1∶1 caused the largest proportion of whitefly nymph mortality by parasitism and host feeding among all treatments of parasitoid releases. Generally, En. formosa caused significantly lower proportion of whitefly nymph mortality than En. sophia released at all male to female ratios except at 1∶6, with no difference between them.


Reevaluation of the value of autoparasitoids in biological control.

Zang LS, Liu TX, Wan FH - PLoS ONE (2011)

Proportion of total whitefly nymphs killed due to parasitism and host feeding by En. sophia with different released ratio of male: female and En. formosa.The same letters above bars in each figure indicate that means do not differ significantly (P>0.05, Tukey's HSD test). E.F. - En. formosa.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3102091&req=5

pone-0020324-g004: Proportion of total whitefly nymphs killed due to parasitism and host feeding by En. sophia with different released ratio of male: female and En. formosa.The same letters above bars in each figure indicate that means do not differ significantly (P>0.05, Tukey's HSD test). E.F. - En. formosa.
Mentions: The availability of males significantly affected the efficiency of whitefly suppression by En. sophia (F4, 20 = 3.07; P = 0.0402) (Fig. 4). Encarsia sophia released at a male to female ratio of 1∶1 caused the largest proportion of whitefly nymph mortality by parasitism and host feeding among all treatments of parasitoid releases. Generally, En. formosa caused significantly lower proportion of whitefly nymph mortality than En. sophia released at all male to female ratios except at 1∶6, with no difference between them.

Bottom Line: We found that Encarsia sophia, a facultative autoparasitoid, preferred to use heterospecific hosts as secondary hosts for producing males.The autoparasitoids mated with males originated from heterospecifics may parasitize more hosts than those mated with males from conspecifics.The demonstrated preference of an autoparasitoid for heterospecifics and improved performance of males from heterospecifics observed in this study suggests these criteria should be considered in strategies that endeavor to mass-produce and utilize autoparasitoids in the future.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Biological Control, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, China.

ABSTRACT
Autoparasitoids with the capacity of consuming primary parasitoids that share the same hosts to produce males are analogous to intraguild predators. The use of autoparasitoids in biological control programs is a controversial matter because there is little evidence to support the view that autoparasitoids do not disrupt and at times may promote suppression of insect pests in combination with primary parasitoids. We found that Encarsia sophia, a facultative autoparasitoid, preferred to use heterospecific hosts as secondary hosts for producing males. The autoparasitoids mated with males originated from heterospecifics may parasitize more hosts than those mated with males from conspecifics. Provided with an adequate number of males, the autoparasitoids killed more hosts than En. formosa, a commonly used parasitoid for biological control of whiteflies. This study supports the view that autoparasitoids in combination with primary parasitoids do not disrupt pest management and may enhance such programs. The demonstrated preference of an autoparasitoid for heterospecifics and improved performance of males from heterospecifics observed in this study suggests these criteria should be considered in strategies that endeavor to mass-produce and utilize autoparasitoids in the future.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus