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Reevaluation of the value of autoparasitoids in biological control.

Zang LS, Liu TX, Wan FH - PLoS ONE (2011)

Bottom Line: We found that Encarsia sophia, a facultative autoparasitoid, preferred to use heterospecific hosts as secondary hosts for producing males.The autoparasitoids mated with males originated from heterospecifics may parasitize more hosts than those mated with males from conspecifics.The demonstrated preference of an autoparasitoid for heterospecifics and improved performance of males from heterospecifics observed in this study suggests these criteria should be considered in strategies that endeavor to mass-produce and utilize autoparasitoids in the future.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Biological Control, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, China.

ABSTRACT
Autoparasitoids with the capacity of consuming primary parasitoids that share the same hosts to produce males are analogous to intraguild predators. The use of autoparasitoids in biological control programs is a controversial matter because there is little evidence to support the view that autoparasitoids do not disrupt and at times may promote suppression of insect pests in combination with primary parasitoids. We found that Encarsia sophia, a facultative autoparasitoid, preferred to use heterospecific hosts as secondary hosts for producing males. The autoparasitoids mated with males originated from heterospecifics may parasitize more hosts than those mated with males from conspecifics. Provided with an adequate number of males, the autoparasitoids killed more hosts than En. formosa, a commonly used parasitoid for biological control of whiteflies. This study supports the view that autoparasitoids in combination with primary parasitoids do not disrupt pest management and may enhance such programs. The demonstrated preference of an autoparasitoid for heterospecifics and improved performance of males from heterospecifics observed in this study suggests these criteria should be considered in strategies that endeavor to mass-produce and utilize autoparasitoids in the future.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Oviposition period (A) and total whitefly nymphs parasitized (B) by En. sophia female mated with male originated from different secondary hosts.The same letters above the bars in each figure indicate that means do not differ significantly (P>0.05, Tukey's HSD test). ESM, EFM and EMM indicated that males from En. sophia, En. formosa and Er. melanoscutus, respectively.
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pone-0020324-g003: Oviposition period (A) and total whitefly nymphs parasitized (B) by En. sophia female mated with male originated from different secondary hosts.The same letters above the bars in each figure indicate that means do not differ significantly (P>0.05, Tukey's HSD test). ESM, EFM and EMM indicated that males from En. sophia, En. formosa and Er. melanoscutus, respectively.

Mentions: Encarsia sophia females had different oviposition periods and parasitized different numbers of whitefly nymphs throughout their lifespan when they were mated with males originated from different secondary host species (Fig. 3). Females mated with males originated from En. formosa had longer oviposition periods (F2, 50 = 7.22; P = 0.0018) and parasitized more whitefly nymphs (F2, 50 = 7.87; P = 0.0011) than those mated with males from En. sophia and Er. melanoscutus with no difference between them.


Reevaluation of the value of autoparasitoids in biological control.

Zang LS, Liu TX, Wan FH - PLoS ONE (2011)

Oviposition period (A) and total whitefly nymphs parasitized (B) by En. sophia female mated with male originated from different secondary hosts.The same letters above the bars in each figure indicate that means do not differ significantly (P>0.05, Tukey's HSD test). ESM, EFM and EMM indicated that males from En. sophia, En. formosa and Er. melanoscutus, respectively.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3102091&req=5

pone-0020324-g003: Oviposition period (A) and total whitefly nymphs parasitized (B) by En. sophia female mated with male originated from different secondary hosts.The same letters above the bars in each figure indicate that means do not differ significantly (P>0.05, Tukey's HSD test). ESM, EFM and EMM indicated that males from En. sophia, En. formosa and Er. melanoscutus, respectively.
Mentions: Encarsia sophia females had different oviposition periods and parasitized different numbers of whitefly nymphs throughout their lifespan when they were mated with males originated from different secondary host species (Fig. 3). Females mated with males originated from En. formosa had longer oviposition periods (F2, 50 = 7.22; P = 0.0018) and parasitized more whitefly nymphs (F2, 50 = 7.87; P = 0.0011) than those mated with males from En. sophia and Er. melanoscutus with no difference between them.

Bottom Line: We found that Encarsia sophia, a facultative autoparasitoid, preferred to use heterospecific hosts as secondary hosts for producing males.The autoparasitoids mated with males originated from heterospecifics may parasitize more hosts than those mated with males from conspecifics.The demonstrated preference of an autoparasitoid for heterospecifics and improved performance of males from heterospecifics observed in this study suggests these criteria should be considered in strategies that endeavor to mass-produce and utilize autoparasitoids in the future.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Biological Control, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, China.

ABSTRACT
Autoparasitoids with the capacity of consuming primary parasitoids that share the same hosts to produce males are analogous to intraguild predators. The use of autoparasitoids in biological control programs is a controversial matter because there is little evidence to support the view that autoparasitoids do not disrupt and at times may promote suppression of insect pests in combination with primary parasitoids. We found that Encarsia sophia, a facultative autoparasitoid, preferred to use heterospecific hosts as secondary hosts for producing males. The autoparasitoids mated with males originated from heterospecifics may parasitize more hosts than those mated with males from conspecifics. Provided with an adequate number of males, the autoparasitoids killed more hosts than En. formosa, a commonly used parasitoid for biological control of whiteflies. This study supports the view that autoparasitoids in combination with primary parasitoids do not disrupt pest management and may enhance such programs. The demonstrated preference of an autoparasitoid for heterospecifics and improved performance of males from heterospecifics observed in this study suggests these criteria should be considered in strategies that endeavor to mass-produce and utilize autoparasitoids in the future.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus