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Reevaluation of the value of autoparasitoids in biological control.

Zang LS, Liu TX, Wan FH - PLoS ONE (2011)

Bottom Line: We found that Encarsia sophia, a facultative autoparasitoid, preferred to use heterospecific hosts as secondary hosts for producing males.The autoparasitoids mated with males originated from heterospecifics may parasitize more hosts than those mated with males from conspecifics.The demonstrated preference of an autoparasitoid for heterospecifics and improved performance of males from heterospecifics observed in this study suggests these criteria should be considered in strategies that endeavor to mass-produce and utilize autoparasitoids in the future.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Biological Control, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, China.

ABSTRACT
Autoparasitoids with the capacity of consuming primary parasitoids that share the same hosts to produce males are analogous to intraguild predators. The use of autoparasitoids in biological control programs is a controversial matter because there is little evidence to support the view that autoparasitoids do not disrupt and at times may promote suppression of insect pests in combination with primary parasitoids. We found that Encarsia sophia, a facultative autoparasitoid, preferred to use heterospecific hosts as secondary hosts for producing males. The autoparasitoids mated with males originated from heterospecifics may parasitize more hosts than those mated with males from conspecifics. Provided with an adequate number of males, the autoparasitoids killed more hosts than En. formosa, a commonly used parasitoid for biological control of whiteflies. This study supports the view that autoparasitoids in combination with primary parasitoids do not disrupt pest management and may enhance such programs. The demonstrated preference of an autoparasitoid for heterospecifics and improved performance of males from heterospecifics observed in this study suggests these criteria should be considered in strategies that endeavor to mass-produce and utilize autoparasitoids in the future.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Number of secondary hosts parasitized (A) and fed on (B) by two En. sophia female adults during 48-h exposure under paired choice conditions.The paired bars with an ‘*’ or ‘**’ indicate that the means differ significantly at P<0.05 or P<0.01 (paired t-test), respectively. Secondary hosts∶ E.S. = En. sophia, E.F. = En. formosa, E.M. = Er. melanoscutus.
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pone-0020324-g002: Number of secondary hosts parasitized (A) and fed on (B) by two En. sophia female adults during 48-h exposure under paired choice conditions.The paired bars with an ‘*’ or ‘**’ indicate that the means differ significantly at P<0.05 or P<0.01 (paired t-test), respectively. Secondary hosts∶ E.S. = En. sophia, E.F. = En. formosa, E.M. = Er. melanoscutus.

Mentions: Encarsia sophia exhibited different host selection on different secondary host species under paired choice conditions (Fig. 2). When En. sophia was offered in combination with heterospecific species, En. sophia females significantly preferred parasitizing En. formosa or Er. melanoscutus compared to its own species (15.9 En. formosa vs 4.2 En. sophia; 12.3 Er. melanoscutus vs 3.7 En. sophia. t = 11.89−18.07, P<0.0001). When En. formosa and Er. melanoscutus were offered simultaneously, En. sophia females significantly preferred to parasitize En. formosa (14.0 vs 8.4, t = 9.10, P<0.0001) (Fig. 2A). When En. sophia was presented in combination with heterospecific species, En. sophia females significantly fed on fewer conspecific hosts than heterospecific hosts, En. formosa and Er. melanoscutus (t = 2.76−4.41, P = 0.0101−0.0002). However, when two heterspecific hosts were presented simultaneously, En. sophia females significantly fed on more Er. melanoscutus than En. formosa (t = 2.14, P = 0.0378) (Fig. 2B).


Reevaluation of the value of autoparasitoids in biological control.

Zang LS, Liu TX, Wan FH - PLoS ONE (2011)

Number of secondary hosts parasitized (A) and fed on (B) by two En. sophia female adults during 48-h exposure under paired choice conditions.The paired bars with an ‘*’ or ‘**’ indicate that the means differ significantly at P<0.05 or P<0.01 (paired t-test), respectively. Secondary hosts∶ E.S. = En. sophia, E.F. = En. formosa, E.M. = Er. melanoscutus.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3102091&req=5

pone-0020324-g002: Number of secondary hosts parasitized (A) and fed on (B) by two En. sophia female adults during 48-h exposure under paired choice conditions.The paired bars with an ‘*’ or ‘**’ indicate that the means differ significantly at P<0.05 or P<0.01 (paired t-test), respectively. Secondary hosts∶ E.S. = En. sophia, E.F. = En. formosa, E.M. = Er. melanoscutus.
Mentions: Encarsia sophia exhibited different host selection on different secondary host species under paired choice conditions (Fig. 2). When En. sophia was offered in combination with heterospecific species, En. sophia females significantly preferred parasitizing En. formosa or Er. melanoscutus compared to its own species (15.9 En. formosa vs 4.2 En. sophia; 12.3 Er. melanoscutus vs 3.7 En. sophia. t = 11.89−18.07, P<0.0001). When En. formosa and Er. melanoscutus were offered simultaneously, En. sophia females significantly preferred to parasitize En. formosa (14.0 vs 8.4, t = 9.10, P<0.0001) (Fig. 2A). When En. sophia was presented in combination with heterospecific species, En. sophia females significantly fed on fewer conspecific hosts than heterospecific hosts, En. formosa and Er. melanoscutus (t = 2.76−4.41, P = 0.0101−0.0002). However, when two heterspecific hosts were presented simultaneously, En. sophia females significantly fed on more Er. melanoscutus than En. formosa (t = 2.14, P = 0.0378) (Fig. 2B).

Bottom Line: We found that Encarsia sophia, a facultative autoparasitoid, preferred to use heterospecific hosts as secondary hosts for producing males.The autoparasitoids mated with males originated from heterospecifics may parasitize more hosts than those mated with males from conspecifics.The demonstrated preference of an autoparasitoid for heterospecifics and improved performance of males from heterospecifics observed in this study suggests these criteria should be considered in strategies that endeavor to mass-produce and utilize autoparasitoids in the future.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Biological Control, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, China.

ABSTRACT
Autoparasitoids with the capacity of consuming primary parasitoids that share the same hosts to produce males are analogous to intraguild predators. The use of autoparasitoids in biological control programs is a controversial matter because there is little evidence to support the view that autoparasitoids do not disrupt and at times may promote suppression of insect pests in combination with primary parasitoids. We found that Encarsia sophia, a facultative autoparasitoid, preferred to use heterospecific hosts as secondary hosts for producing males. The autoparasitoids mated with males originated from heterospecifics may parasitize more hosts than those mated with males from conspecifics. Provided with an adequate number of males, the autoparasitoids killed more hosts than En. formosa, a commonly used parasitoid for biological control of whiteflies. This study supports the view that autoparasitoids in combination with primary parasitoids do not disrupt pest management and may enhance such programs. The demonstrated preference of an autoparasitoid for heterospecifics and improved performance of males from heterospecifics observed in this study suggests these criteria should be considered in strategies that endeavor to mass-produce and utilize autoparasitoids in the future.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus