Limits...
Reevaluation of the value of autoparasitoids in biological control.

Zang LS, Liu TX, Wan FH - PLoS ONE (2011)

Bottom Line: We found that Encarsia sophia, a facultative autoparasitoid, preferred to use heterospecific hosts as secondary hosts for producing males.The autoparasitoids mated with males originated from heterospecifics may parasitize more hosts than those mated with males from conspecifics.The demonstrated preference of an autoparasitoid for heterospecifics and improved performance of males from heterospecifics observed in this study suggests these criteria should be considered in strategies that endeavor to mass-produce and utilize autoparasitoids in the future.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Biological Control, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, China.

ABSTRACT
Autoparasitoids with the capacity of consuming primary parasitoids that share the same hosts to produce males are analogous to intraguild predators. The use of autoparasitoids in biological control programs is a controversial matter because there is little evidence to support the view that autoparasitoids do not disrupt and at times may promote suppression of insect pests in combination with primary parasitoids. We found that Encarsia sophia, a facultative autoparasitoid, preferred to use heterospecific hosts as secondary hosts for producing males. The autoparasitoids mated with males originated from heterospecifics may parasitize more hosts than those mated with males from conspecifics. Provided with an adequate number of males, the autoparasitoids killed more hosts than En. formosa, a commonly used parasitoid for biological control of whiteflies. This study supports the view that autoparasitoids in combination with primary parasitoids do not disrupt pest management and may enhance such programs. The demonstrated preference of an autoparasitoid for heterospecifics and improved performance of males from heterospecifics observed in this study suggests these criteria should be considered in strategies that endeavor to mass-produce and utilize autoparasitoids in the future.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Number of secondary hosts (En. sophia, En. formosa, Er. melanoscutus) parasitized (A) and fed on (B) by two En. sophia female adults during 48-h exposure under no-choice conditions.The same letters above bars in each figure indicate that means do not differ significantly (P>0.05, Tukey's HSD test).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3102091&req=5

pone-0020324-g001: Number of secondary hosts (En. sophia, En. formosa, Er. melanoscutus) parasitized (A) and fed on (B) by two En. sophia female adults during 48-h exposure under no-choice conditions.The same letters above bars in each figure indicate that means do not differ significantly (P>0.05, Tukey's HSD test).

Mentions: Parasitism or host feeding by En. sophia females on conspecific and heterospecific hosts varied (Fig. 1). Encarsia sophia females most preferred to use En. formosa as its secondary host, followed by Er. melanoscutus and En. sophia under no-choice conditions (F2, 72 = 127.87; P<0.0001) (Fig. 1A). The number of En. formosa immatures parasitized by one En. sophia female in 48 h averaged 7.1, 2.9 and 1.6 fold more than that of En. sophia (2.7) and Er. melanoscutus (4.6), respectively. Encarsia sophia females rarely fed on their own offspring (Fig. 1B). The number of conspecific hosts fed on by En. sophia females was significantly fewer than those of heterospecific hosts (F2, 72 = 10.30; P = 0.0001), Er. melanoscutus and En. formosa with no difference between the latter.


Reevaluation of the value of autoparasitoids in biological control.

Zang LS, Liu TX, Wan FH - PLoS ONE (2011)

Number of secondary hosts (En. sophia, En. formosa, Er. melanoscutus) parasitized (A) and fed on (B) by two En. sophia female adults during 48-h exposure under no-choice conditions.The same letters above bars in each figure indicate that means do not differ significantly (P>0.05, Tukey's HSD test).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3102091&req=5

pone-0020324-g001: Number of secondary hosts (En. sophia, En. formosa, Er. melanoscutus) parasitized (A) and fed on (B) by two En. sophia female adults during 48-h exposure under no-choice conditions.The same letters above bars in each figure indicate that means do not differ significantly (P>0.05, Tukey's HSD test).
Mentions: Parasitism or host feeding by En. sophia females on conspecific and heterospecific hosts varied (Fig. 1). Encarsia sophia females most preferred to use En. formosa as its secondary host, followed by Er. melanoscutus and En. sophia under no-choice conditions (F2, 72 = 127.87; P<0.0001) (Fig. 1A). The number of En. formosa immatures parasitized by one En. sophia female in 48 h averaged 7.1, 2.9 and 1.6 fold more than that of En. sophia (2.7) and Er. melanoscutus (4.6), respectively. Encarsia sophia females rarely fed on their own offspring (Fig. 1B). The number of conspecific hosts fed on by En. sophia females was significantly fewer than those of heterospecific hosts (F2, 72 = 10.30; P = 0.0001), Er. melanoscutus and En. formosa with no difference between the latter.

Bottom Line: We found that Encarsia sophia, a facultative autoparasitoid, preferred to use heterospecific hosts as secondary hosts for producing males.The autoparasitoids mated with males originated from heterospecifics may parasitize more hosts than those mated with males from conspecifics.The demonstrated preference of an autoparasitoid for heterospecifics and improved performance of males from heterospecifics observed in this study suggests these criteria should be considered in strategies that endeavor to mass-produce and utilize autoparasitoids in the future.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Biological Control, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, China.

ABSTRACT
Autoparasitoids with the capacity of consuming primary parasitoids that share the same hosts to produce males are analogous to intraguild predators. The use of autoparasitoids in biological control programs is a controversial matter because there is little evidence to support the view that autoparasitoids do not disrupt and at times may promote suppression of insect pests in combination with primary parasitoids. We found that Encarsia sophia, a facultative autoparasitoid, preferred to use heterospecific hosts as secondary hosts for producing males. The autoparasitoids mated with males originated from heterospecifics may parasitize more hosts than those mated with males from conspecifics. Provided with an adequate number of males, the autoparasitoids killed more hosts than En. formosa, a commonly used parasitoid for biological control of whiteflies. This study supports the view that autoparasitoids in combination with primary parasitoids do not disrupt pest management and may enhance such programs. The demonstrated preference of an autoparasitoid for heterospecifics and improved performance of males from heterospecifics observed in this study suggests these criteria should be considered in strategies that endeavor to mass-produce and utilize autoparasitoids in the future.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus