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Trends over 5 decades in U.S. occupation-related physical activity and their associations with obesity.

Church TS, Thomas DM, Tudor-Locke C, Katzmarzyk PT, Earnest CP, Rodarte RQ, Martin CK, Blair SN, Bouchard C - PLoS ONE (2011)

Bottom Line: Given a baseline weight of 76.9 kg in 1960-02, we estimated that a 142 calories reduction would result in an increase in mean weight to 89.7 kg, which closely matched the mean NHANES weight of 91.8 kg in 2003-06.The results were similar for women.Over the last 50 years in the U.S. we estimate that daily occupation-related energy expenditure has decreased by more than 100 calories, and this reduction in energy expenditure accounts for a significant portion of the increase in mean U.S. body weights for women and men.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States of America. tim.church@pbrc.edu

ABSTRACT

Background: The true causes of the obesity epidemic are not well understood and there are few longitudinal population-based data published examining this issue. The objective of this analysis was to examine trends in occupational physical activity during the past 5 decades and explore how these trends relate to concurrent changes in body weight in the U.S.

Methodology/principal findings: Analysis of energy expenditure for occupations in U.S. private industry since 1960 using data from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Mean body weight was derived from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). In the early 1960's almost half the jobs in private industry in the U.S. required at least moderate intensity physical activity whereas now less than 20% demand this level of energy expenditure. Since 1960 the estimated mean daily energy expenditure due to work related physical activity has dropped by more than 100 calories in both women and men. Energy balance model predicted weights based on change in occupation-related daily energy expenditure since 1960 for each NHANES examination period closely matched the actual change in weight for 40-50 year old men and women. For example from 1960-62 to 2003-06 we estimated that the occupation-related daily energy expenditure decreased by 142 calories in men. Given a baseline weight of 76.9 kg in 1960-02, we estimated that a 142 calories reduction would result in an increase in mean weight to 89.7 kg, which closely matched the mean NHANES weight of 91.8 kg in 2003-06. The results were similar for women.

Conclusion: Over the last 50 years in the U.S. we estimate that daily occupation-related energy expenditure has decreased by more than 100 calories, and this reduction in energy expenditure accounts for a significant portion of the increase in mean U.S. body weights for women and men.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Occupational METs and energy expenditure since 1960.The upper panel of Figure 3 plots the mean occupation-related METs since 1960 and the lower panel presents the mean occupational daily energy expenditure in men and women since 1960.
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pone-0019657-g003: Occupational METs and energy expenditure since 1960.The upper panel of Figure 3 plots the mean occupation-related METs since 1960 and the lower panel presents the mean occupational daily energy expenditure in men and women since 1960.

Mentions: Figure 2 presents the trends in the prevalence of sedentary, light, and moderate intensity occupations from 1960 to 2008. While there has been a steady increase in the prevalence of sedentary and light intensity physical activity occupations since 1960, the prevalence of moderate intensity physical activity occupations has decreased from 48% in 1960 to 20% in 2008 (p trend<0.001 for each). Figure 3 plots the mean occupation-related METs (top panel) and the associated change in occupation-related daily caloric expenditure for women and men (bottom panel). There was a steep decline in mean occupation-related METs and consequently mean occupation-related physical activity energy expenditure from 1960 to 2008 (p trend<0.001 for each). From 1960 to 2008 there was an approximate drop in occupation-related daily energy expenditure of 140 calories for men and 124 calories for women.


Trends over 5 decades in U.S. occupation-related physical activity and their associations with obesity.

Church TS, Thomas DM, Tudor-Locke C, Katzmarzyk PT, Earnest CP, Rodarte RQ, Martin CK, Blair SN, Bouchard C - PLoS ONE (2011)

Occupational METs and energy expenditure since 1960.The upper panel of Figure 3 plots the mean occupation-related METs since 1960 and the lower panel presents the mean occupational daily energy expenditure in men and women since 1960.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3102055&req=5

pone-0019657-g003: Occupational METs and energy expenditure since 1960.The upper panel of Figure 3 plots the mean occupation-related METs since 1960 and the lower panel presents the mean occupational daily energy expenditure in men and women since 1960.
Mentions: Figure 2 presents the trends in the prevalence of sedentary, light, and moderate intensity occupations from 1960 to 2008. While there has been a steady increase in the prevalence of sedentary and light intensity physical activity occupations since 1960, the prevalence of moderate intensity physical activity occupations has decreased from 48% in 1960 to 20% in 2008 (p trend<0.001 for each). Figure 3 plots the mean occupation-related METs (top panel) and the associated change in occupation-related daily caloric expenditure for women and men (bottom panel). There was a steep decline in mean occupation-related METs and consequently mean occupation-related physical activity energy expenditure from 1960 to 2008 (p trend<0.001 for each). From 1960 to 2008 there was an approximate drop in occupation-related daily energy expenditure of 140 calories for men and 124 calories for women.

Bottom Line: Given a baseline weight of 76.9 kg in 1960-02, we estimated that a 142 calories reduction would result in an increase in mean weight to 89.7 kg, which closely matched the mean NHANES weight of 91.8 kg in 2003-06.The results were similar for women.Over the last 50 years in the U.S. we estimate that daily occupation-related energy expenditure has decreased by more than 100 calories, and this reduction in energy expenditure accounts for a significant portion of the increase in mean U.S. body weights for women and men.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States of America. tim.church@pbrc.edu

ABSTRACT

Background: The true causes of the obesity epidemic are not well understood and there are few longitudinal population-based data published examining this issue. The objective of this analysis was to examine trends in occupational physical activity during the past 5 decades and explore how these trends relate to concurrent changes in body weight in the U.S.

Methodology/principal findings: Analysis of energy expenditure for occupations in U.S. private industry since 1960 using data from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Mean body weight was derived from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). In the early 1960's almost half the jobs in private industry in the U.S. required at least moderate intensity physical activity whereas now less than 20% demand this level of energy expenditure. Since 1960 the estimated mean daily energy expenditure due to work related physical activity has dropped by more than 100 calories in both women and men. Energy balance model predicted weights based on change in occupation-related daily energy expenditure since 1960 for each NHANES examination period closely matched the actual change in weight for 40-50 year old men and women. For example from 1960-62 to 2003-06 we estimated that the occupation-related daily energy expenditure decreased by 142 calories in men. Given a baseline weight of 76.9 kg in 1960-02, we estimated that a 142 calories reduction would result in an increase in mean weight to 89.7 kg, which closely matched the mean NHANES weight of 91.8 kg in 2003-06. The results were similar for women.

Conclusion: Over the last 50 years in the U.S. we estimate that daily occupation-related energy expenditure has decreased by more than 100 calories, and this reduction in energy expenditure accounts for a significant portion of the increase in mean U.S. body weights for women and men.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus