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Fluid intake and incidence of renal cell carcinoma in UK women.

Allen NE, Balkwill A, Beral V, Green J, Reeves G, Million Women Study Collaborato - Br. J. Cancer (2011)

Bottom Line: Information on beverage consumption was obtained from a questionnaire sent ∼3 years after recruitment into the Million Women Study.Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for renal cell carcinoma associated with beverage consumption adjusted for age, region of residence, socioeconomic status, smoking, and body mass index.While alcohol intake was associated with a reduced risk of renal cell carcinoma (RR for ≥ 2 vs <1 drink per day: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.61-0.96; P for trend=0.02), there was no association with total fluid intake (RR for ≥ 12 vs <7 drinks per day: 1.15; 95% CI: 0.91-1.45; P for trend=0.3) or with intakes of specific beverages.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Richard Doll Building, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7LF, UK. naomi.allen@ceu.ox.ac.uk

ABSTRACT

Background: It has been suggested that the apparent protective effect of alcohol intake on renal cell carcinoma may be due to the diluting effect of carcinogens by a high total fluid intake. We assessed the association between intakes of total fluids and of specific beverages on the risk of renal cell carcinoma in a large prospective cohort of UK women.

Methods: Information on beverage consumption was obtained from a questionnaire sent ∼3 years after recruitment into the Million Women Study. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for renal cell carcinoma associated with beverage consumption adjusted for age, region of residence, socioeconomic status, smoking, and body mass index.

Results: After an average of 5.2 years of follow-up, 588 cases of renal cell carcinoma were identified among 779,369 women. While alcohol intake was associated with a reduced risk of renal cell carcinoma (RR for ≥ 2 vs <1 drink per day: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.61-0.96; P for trend=0.02), there was no association with total fluid intake (RR for ≥ 12 vs <7 drinks per day: 1.15; 95% CI: 0.91-1.45; P for trend=0.3) or with intakes of specific beverages.

Conclusions: The apparent protective effect of alcohol on the risk of renal cell carcinoma is unlikely to be related to a high fluid intake.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Distribution of total fluid intake among 779 369 women in the Million Women Study.
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fig1: Distribution of total fluid intake among 779 369 women in the Million Women Study.

Mentions: A total of 779 369 women were followed-up for an average of 5.2 years, during which time 588 incident cases of renal cell carcinoma were identified. The average age at the time the information on fluid consumption was reported was 59 years (5–95th percentile: 53–67 years), and the mean age at renal cell carcinoma diagnosis was 64 years. The relative contribution of specific beverages to overall fluid consumption is shown in Table 1. Overall, tea, water, and coffee contributed the most to total fluid consumption (35, 25, and 21%, respectively) with alcohol, fruit squash, fruit juice, milk, and carbonated drinks each contributing ⩽5% to total fluid intake. Figure 1 shows the distribution of total fluid intake among all women, with a median of 10 drinks per day (5–95th percentile range: 5–16 drinks per day). Water contributed most to the variation in total fluid intake, although women with a high intake of total fluid (i.e., ⩾12 drinks per day) also drank proportionally more alcohol and fruit squash and less tea and coffee than women with a low overall intake (<7 drinks per day). Women who drank ⩾12 drinks each day tended to be younger, have a slightly higher body mass index, were more likely to be current smokers, and less likely to be treated for hypertension than women with a low intake of total fluids (<7 drinks per day; Table 1).


Fluid intake and incidence of renal cell carcinoma in UK women.

Allen NE, Balkwill A, Beral V, Green J, Reeves G, Million Women Study Collaborato - Br. J. Cancer (2011)

Distribution of total fluid intake among 779 369 women in the Million Women Study.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3101943&req=5

fig1: Distribution of total fluid intake among 779 369 women in the Million Women Study.
Mentions: A total of 779 369 women were followed-up for an average of 5.2 years, during which time 588 incident cases of renal cell carcinoma were identified. The average age at the time the information on fluid consumption was reported was 59 years (5–95th percentile: 53–67 years), and the mean age at renal cell carcinoma diagnosis was 64 years. The relative contribution of specific beverages to overall fluid consumption is shown in Table 1. Overall, tea, water, and coffee contributed the most to total fluid consumption (35, 25, and 21%, respectively) with alcohol, fruit squash, fruit juice, milk, and carbonated drinks each contributing ⩽5% to total fluid intake. Figure 1 shows the distribution of total fluid intake among all women, with a median of 10 drinks per day (5–95th percentile range: 5–16 drinks per day). Water contributed most to the variation in total fluid intake, although women with a high intake of total fluid (i.e., ⩾12 drinks per day) also drank proportionally more alcohol and fruit squash and less tea and coffee than women with a low overall intake (<7 drinks per day). Women who drank ⩾12 drinks each day tended to be younger, have a slightly higher body mass index, were more likely to be current smokers, and less likely to be treated for hypertension than women with a low intake of total fluids (<7 drinks per day; Table 1).

Bottom Line: Information on beverage consumption was obtained from a questionnaire sent ∼3 years after recruitment into the Million Women Study.Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for renal cell carcinoma associated with beverage consumption adjusted for age, region of residence, socioeconomic status, smoking, and body mass index.While alcohol intake was associated with a reduced risk of renal cell carcinoma (RR for ≥ 2 vs <1 drink per day: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.61-0.96; P for trend=0.02), there was no association with total fluid intake (RR for ≥ 12 vs <7 drinks per day: 1.15; 95% CI: 0.91-1.45; P for trend=0.3) or with intakes of specific beverages.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Richard Doll Building, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7LF, UK. naomi.allen@ceu.ox.ac.uk

ABSTRACT

Background: It has been suggested that the apparent protective effect of alcohol intake on renal cell carcinoma may be due to the diluting effect of carcinogens by a high total fluid intake. We assessed the association between intakes of total fluids and of specific beverages on the risk of renal cell carcinoma in a large prospective cohort of UK women.

Methods: Information on beverage consumption was obtained from a questionnaire sent ∼3 years after recruitment into the Million Women Study. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for renal cell carcinoma associated with beverage consumption adjusted for age, region of residence, socioeconomic status, smoking, and body mass index.

Results: After an average of 5.2 years of follow-up, 588 cases of renal cell carcinoma were identified among 779,369 women. While alcohol intake was associated with a reduced risk of renal cell carcinoma (RR for ≥ 2 vs <1 drink per day: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.61-0.96; P for trend=0.02), there was no association with total fluid intake (RR for ≥ 12 vs <7 drinks per day: 1.15; 95% CI: 0.91-1.45; P for trend=0.3) or with intakes of specific beverages.

Conclusions: The apparent protective effect of alcohol on the risk of renal cell carcinoma is unlikely to be related to a high fluid intake.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus