Limits...
The mouse primary visual cortex is a site of production and sensitivity to estrogens.

Jeong JK, Tremere LA, Burrows K, Majewska AK, Pinaud R - PLoS ONE (2011)

Bottom Line: We found that both monocular and binocular V1 are highly enriched in aromatase- and ER-positive neurons, indicating that V1 is a site of production and sensitivity to estrogens.Interestingly, acute episodes of visual experience do not affect the density or distribution of estrogen-associated circuits.Finally, we show that adult mice dark-reared from birth also exhibit normal distribution of aromatase and ERs throughout V1, suggesting that the implementation and maintenance of estrogen-associated circuits is independent of visual experience.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Physiology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The classic female estrogen, 17β-estradiol (E2), has been repeatedly shown to affect the perceptual processing of visual cues. Although gonadal E2 has often been thought to influence these processes, the possibility that central visual processing may be modulated by brain-generated hormone has not been explored. Here we show that estrogen-associated circuits are highly prevalent in the mouse primary visual cortex (V1). Specifically, we cloned aromatase, a marker for estrogen-producing neurons, and the classic estrogen receptors (ERs) ERα and ERβ, as markers for estrogen-responsive neurons, and conducted a detailed expression analysis via in-situ hybridization. We found that both monocular and binocular V1 are highly enriched in aromatase- and ER-positive neurons, indicating that V1 is a site of production and sensitivity to estrogens. Using double-fluorescence in-situ hybridization, we reveal the neurochemical identity of estrogen-producing and -sensitive cells in V1, and demonstrate that they constitute a heterogeneous neuronal population. We further show that visual experience engages a large population of aromatase-positive neurons and, to a lesser extent, ER-expressing neurons, suggesting that E2 levels may be locally regulated by visual input in V1. Interestingly, acute episodes of visual experience do not affect the density or distribution of estrogen-associated circuits. Finally, we show that adult mice dark-reared from birth also exhibit normal distribution of aromatase and ERs throughout V1, suggesting that the implementation and maintenance of estrogen-associated circuits is independent of visual experience. Our findings demonstrate that the adult V1 is a site of production and sensitivity to estrogens, and suggest that locally-produced E2 may shape visual cortical processing.

Show MeSH
Visual experience activates estrogen-associated networks in V1.Photomicrographs illustrating the pattern of double-fluorescence in-situ hybridization (dFISH) signal in the V1 of mice stimulated for 30 min with ambient light, following overnight dark-adaptation (see Methods). Shown are representative fields depicting neurons that co-express the activity-dependent immediate early gene egr-1 (A, D and G) and ARO (B), ERα (E) or ERβ (H) mRNAs. Merged images are shown in the right-most panels (C, F and I). Representative neurons that are positive only for egr-1 (arrows), or exclusively for ARO, ERα or ERβ (arrowheads) can be readily identified in the images, along with examples of double-labeled neurons (asterisks). All images were obtained within a single optical slice using confocal microscopy. Scale bar = 25 µm.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3101258&req=5

pone-0020400-g003: Visual experience activates estrogen-associated networks in V1.Photomicrographs illustrating the pattern of double-fluorescence in-situ hybridization (dFISH) signal in the V1 of mice stimulated for 30 min with ambient light, following overnight dark-adaptation (see Methods). Shown are representative fields depicting neurons that co-express the activity-dependent immediate early gene egr-1 (A, D and G) and ARO (B), ERα (E) or ERβ (H) mRNAs. Merged images are shown in the right-most panels (C, F and I). Representative neurons that are positive only for egr-1 (arrows), or exclusively for ARO, ERα or ERβ (arrowheads) can be readily identified in the images, along with examples of double-labeled neurons (asterisks). All images were obtained within a single optical slice using confocal microscopy. Scale bar = 25 µm.

Mentions: We next tested if estrogen-associated circuits in V1 are engaged by visual stimulation. To this end, we housed animals overnight in a dark-room and subsequently stimulated mice with ambient light for 30 min. The V1 was then processed for a stringent double-fluorescence in-situ hybridization method that we developed and described in detail previously, where it is possible to identify two mRNAs in the same brain sections, at single-cell resolution [25], [26]. We used the expression of the activity-dependent transcription factor egr-1 to identify visually-driven neurons in V1, and riboprobes directed against ARO or each of the ERs, to identify estrogen-producing and -responsive neurons (Fig. 3). The expression of egr-1 has been used by a large contingent of research groups, including our own, to reliably identify visually-driven neurons, and the 30 min time-point was chosen as it corresponds to peak egr-1 mRNA accumulation following stimulus onset (for reviews, see [19], [21], [22], [23]).


The mouse primary visual cortex is a site of production and sensitivity to estrogens.

Jeong JK, Tremere LA, Burrows K, Majewska AK, Pinaud R - PLoS ONE (2011)

Visual experience activates estrogen-associated networks in V1.Photomicrographs illustrating the pattern of double-fluorescence in-situ hybridization (dFISH) signal in the V1 of mice stimulated for 30 min with ambient light, following overnight dark-adaptation (see Methods). Shown are representative fields depicting neurons that co-express the activity-dependent immediate early gene egr-1 (A, D and G) and ARO (B), ERα (E) or ERβ (H) mRNAs. Merged images are shown in the right-most panels (C, F and I). Representative neurons that are positive only for egr-1 (arrows), or exclusively for ARO, ERα or ERβ (arrowheads) can be readily identified in the images, along with examples of double-labeled neurons (asterisks). All images were obtained within a single optical slice using confocal microscopy. Scale bar = 25 µm.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3101258&req=5

pone-0020400-g003: Visual experience activates estrogen-associated networks in V1.Photomicrographs illustrating the pattern of double-fluorescence in-situ hybridization (dFISH) signal in the V1 of mice stimulated for 30 min with ambient light, following overnight dark-adaptation (see Methods). Shown are representative fields depicting neurons that co-express the activity-dependent immediate early gene egr-1 (A, D and G) and ARO (B), ERα (E) or ERβ (H) mRNAs. Merged images are shown in the right-most panels (C, F and I). Representative neurons that are positive only for egr-1 (arrows), or exclusively for ARO, ERα or ERβ (arrowheads) can be readily identified in the images, along with examples of double-labeled neurons (asterisks). All images were obtained within a single optical slice using confocal microscopy. Scale bar = 25 µm.
Mentions: We next tested if estrogen-associated circuits in V1 are engaged by visual stimulation. To this end, we housed animals overnight in a dark-room and subsequently stimulated mice with ambient light for 30 min. The V1 was then processed for a stringent double-fluorescence in-situ hybridization method that we developed and described in detail previously, where it is possible to identify two mRNAs in the same brain sections, at single-cell resolution [25], [26]. We used the expression of the activity-dependent transcription factor egr-1 to identify visually-driven neurons in V1, and riboprobes directed against ARO or each of the ERs, to identify estrogen-producing and -responsive neurons (Fig. 3). The expression of egr-1 has been used by a large contingent of research groups, including our own, to reliably identify visually-driven neurons, and the 30 min time-point was chosen as it corresponds to peak egr-1 mRNA accumulation following stimulus onset (for reviews, see [19], [21], [22], [23]).

Bottom Line: We found that both monocular and binocular V1 are highly enriched in aromatase- and ER-positive neurons, indicating that V1 is a site of production and sensitivity to estrogens.Interestingly, acute episodes of visual experience do not affect the density or distribution of estrogen-associated circuits.Finally, we show that adult mice dark-reared from birth also exhibit normal distribution of aromatase and ERs throughout V1, suggesting that the implementation and maintenance of estrogen-associated circuits is independent of visual experience.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Physiology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The classic female estrogen, 17β-estradiol (E2), has been repeatedly shown to affect the perceptual processing of visual cues. Although gonadal E2 has often been thought to influence these processes, the possibility that central visual processing may be modulated by brain-generated hormone has not been explored. Here we show that estrogen-associated circuits are highly prevalent in the mouse primary visual cortex (V1). Specifically, we cloned aromatase, a marker for estrogen-producing neurons, and the classic estrogen receptors (ERs) ERα and ERβ, as markers for estrogen-responsive neurons, and conducted a detailed expression analysis via in-situ hybridization. We found that both monocular and binocular V1 are highly enriched in aromatase- and ER-positive neurons, indicating that V1 is a site of production and sensitivity to estrogens. Using double-fluorescence in-situ hybridization, we reveal the neurochemical identity of estrogen-producing and -sensitive cells in V1, and demonstrate that they constitute a heterogeneous neuronal population. We further show that visual experience engages a large population of aromatase-positive neurons and, to a lesser extent, ER-expressing neurons, suggesting that E2 levels may be locally regulated by visual input in V1. Interestingly, acute episodes of visual experience do not affect the density or distribution of estrogen-associated circuits. Finally, we show that adult mice dark-reared from birth also exhibit normal distribution of aromatase and ERs throughout V1, suggesting that the implementation and maintenance of estrogen-associated circuits is independent of visual experience. Our findings demonstrate that the adult V1 is a site of production and sensitivity to estrogens, and suggest that locally-produced E2 may shape visual cortical processing.

Show MeSH