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Astaxanthin improves stem cell potency via an increase in the proliferation of neural progenitor cells.

Kim JH, Nam SW, Kim BW, Choi W, Lee JH, Kim WJ, Choi YH - Int J Mol Sci (2010)

Bottom Line: Treatment with astaxanthin significantly increased proliferation and colony formation of NPCs.In Western blot analysis, astaxanthin induced significant activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and its downstream mediators in a time-dependent manner.These results clearly showed that astaxanthin induces proliferation of NPCs via activation of the PI3K and MEK signaling pathways and improves stem cell potency via stemness acting signals.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomaterial Control, Dong-Eui University, Busan, 614-714, Korea; E-Mails: 12845@deu.ac.kr (J.-H.K.); bwkim@deu.ac.kr (B.-W.K.); wbchoi@deu.ac.kr (W.C.); jonghwanlee@deu.ac.kr (J.-H.L.).

ABSTRACT
The present study was designed to investigate the question of whether or not astaxanthin improves stem cell potency via an increase in proliferation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs). Treatment with astaxanthin significantly increased proliferation and colony formation of NPCs. For identification of possible activated signaling molecules involved in active cell proliferation occurring after astaxanthin treatment, total protein levels of several proliferation-related proteins, and expression levels of proliferation-related transcription factors, were assessed in NPCs. In Western blot analysis, astaxanthin induced significant activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and its downstream mediators in a time-dependent manner. Results of RT-PCR analysis showed upregulation of proliferation-related transcription factors and stemness genes. To estimate the relevance of PI3K and mitogen-activated protein, or extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEK) signaling pathways in cell growth of astaxanthin-treated NPCs, inhibition assays were performed with LY294002, a specific inhibitor of PI3K, and PD98059, a specific inhibitor of MEK, respectively. These results clearly showed that astaxanthin induces proliferation of NPCs via activation of the PI3K and MEK signaling pathways and improves stem cell potency via stemness acting signals.

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Astaxanthin stimulates cell proliferation of NPCs. (A) Proliferation of NPCs treated with different concentrations of astaxanthin (ASX) for 3 days were assessed by trypan blue exclusion. Application of astaxanthin for 3 days significantly increased proliferation of NPCs in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance with the Fisher test or t-test (* P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01); (B) A clonogenic (CFU) assay was performed to estimate proliferation efficiency of astaxanthin-treated NPCs. In the CFU assay, 10 ng/mL astaxanthin-treated NPCs showed an approximately 2-fold increase in colony formation compared with control NPCs. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance with the Fisher test or t-test (* P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01).
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f1-ijms-11-05109: Astaxanthin stimulates cell proliferation of NPCs. (A) Proliferation of NPCs treated with different concentrations of astaxanthin (ASX) for 3 days were assessed by trypan blue exclusion. Application of astaxanthin for 3 days significantly increased proliferation of NPCs in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance with the Fisher test or t-test (* P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01); (B) A clonogenic (CFU) assay was performed to estimate proliferation efficiency of astaxanthin-treated NPCs. In the CFU assay, 10 ng/mL astaxanthin-treated NPCs showed an approximately 2-fold increase in colony formation compared with control NPCs. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance with the Fisher test or t-test (* P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01).

Mentions: To confirm the effect of astaxanthin on cell growth, proliferation of NPCs treated with different concentrations (1, 5, and 10 ng/mL) of astaxanthin for three days was evaluated by trypan blue exclusion. As shown in Figure 1A, this treatment significantly increased proliferation of NPCs in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. In particular, 10 ng/mL astaxanthin showed the highest proliferation of NPCs. Therefore, 10 ng/mL was determined to be the optimal treatment for the study of NPCs. A clonogenic assay was also performed to estimate the proliferation efficiency of astaxanthin-treated NPCs. Because colony-forming units (CFU) are single cell populations, increases in CFU values show that astaxanthin can actively stimulate proliferation of NPCs. Proliferation efficiency of CFU in astaxanthin-treated cells was assessed via visual colony counts. In the CFU assay, astaxanthin-treated NPCs showed increased colony formation compared with control NPCs (Figure 1B). In particular, 10 ng/mL astaxanthin-treated NPCs showed an approximately two-fold increase in colony formation (Figure 1B).


Astaxanthin improves stem cell potency via an increase in the proliferation of neural progenitor cells.

Kim JH, Nam SW, Kim BW, Choi W, Lee JH, Kim WJ, Choi YH - Int J Mol Sci (2010)

Astaxanthin stimulates cell proliferation of NPCs. (A) Proliferation of NPCs treated with different concentrations of astaxanthin (ASX) for 3 days were assessed by trypan blue exclusion. Application of astaxanthin for 3 days significantly increased proliferation of NPCs in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance with the Fisher test or t-test (* P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01); (B) A clonogenic (CFU) assay was performed to estimate proliferation efficiency of astaxanthin-treated NPCs. In the CFU assay, 10 ng/mL astaxanthin-treated NPCs showed an approximately 2-fold increase in colony formation compared with control NPCs. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance with the Fisher test or t-test (* P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3100832&req=5

f1-ijms-11-05109: Astaxanthin stimulates cell proliferation of NPCs. (A) Proliferation of NPCs treated with different concentrations of astaxanthin (ASX) for 3 days were assessed by trypan blue exclusion. Application of astaxanthin for 3 days significantly increased proliferation of NPCs in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance with the Fisher test or t-test (* P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01); (B) A clonogenic (CFU) assay was performed to estimate proliferation efficiency of astaxanthin-treated NPCs. In the CFU assay, 10 ng/mL astaxanthin-treated NPCs showed an approximately 2-fold increase in colony formation compared with control NPCs. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance with the Fisher test or t-test (* P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01).
Mentions: To confirm the effect of astaxanthin on cell growth, proliferation of NPCs treated with different concentrations (1, 5, and 10 ng/mL) of astaxanthin for three days was evaluated by trypan blue exclusion. As shown in Figure 1A, this treatment significantly increased proliferation of NPCs in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. In particular, 10 ng/mL astaxanthin showed the highest proliferation of NPCs. Therefore, 10 ng/mL was determined to be the optimal treatment for the study of NPCs. A clonogenic assay was also performed to estimate the proliferation efficiency of astaxanthin-treated NPCs. Because colony-forming units (CFU) are single cell populations, increases in CFU values show that astaxanthin can actively stimulate proliferation of NPCs. Proliferation efficiency of CFU in astaxanthin-treated cells was assessed via visual colony counts. In the CFU assay, astaxanthin-treated NPCs showed increased colony formation compared with control NPCs (Figure 1B). In particular, 10 ng/mL astaxanthin-treated NPCs showed an approximately two-fold increase in colony formation (Figure 1B).

Bottom Line: Treatment with astaxanthin significantly increased proliferation and colony formation of NPCs.In Western blot analysis, astaxanthin induced significant activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and its downstream mediators in a time-dependent manner.These results clearly showed that astaxanthin induces proliferation of NPCs via activation of the PI3K and MEK signaling pathways and improves stem cell potency via stemness acting signals.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomaterial Control, Dong-Eui University, Busan, 614-714, Korea; E-Mails: 12845@deu.ac.kr (J.-H.K.); bwkim@deu.ac.kr (B.-W.K.); wbchoi@deu.ac.kr (W.C.); jonghwanlee@deu.ac.kr (J.-H.L.).

ABSTRACT
The present study was designed to investigate the question of whether or not astaxanthin improves stem cell potency via an increase in proliferation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs). Treatment with astaxanthin significantly increased proliferation and colony formation of NPCs. For identification of possible activated signaling molecules involved in active cell proliferation occurring after astaxanthin treatment, total protein levels of several proliferation-related proteins, and expression levels of proliferation-related transcription factors, were assessed in NPCs. In Western blot analysis, astaxanthin induced significant activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and its downstream mediators in a time-dependent manner. Results of RT-PCR analysis showed upregulation of proliferation-related transcription factors and stemness genes. To estimate the relevance of PI3K and mitogen-activated protein, or extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEK) signaling pathways in cell growth of astaxanthin-treated NPCs, inhibition assays were performed with LY294002, a specific inhibitor of PI3K, and PD98059, a specific inhibitor of MEK, respectively. These results clearly showed that astaxanthin induces proliferation of NPCs via activation of the PI3K and MEK signaling pathways and improves stem cell potency via stemness acting signals.

Show MeSH