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Electroencephalographic rhythms in Alzheimer's disease.

Lizio R, Vecchio F, Frisoni GB, Ferri R, Rodriguez G, Babiloni C - Int J Alzheimers Dis (2011)

Bottom Line: Modern neurophysiological techniques, such as electroencephalography (EEG) and event-related potentials (ERPs), are useful tools in the investigation of brain cognitive function in normal and pathological aging with an excellent time resolution.These techniques can index normal and abnormal brain aging analysis of corticocortical connectivity and neuronal synchronization of rhythmic oscillations at various frequencies.The present review suggests that discrimination between physiological and pathological brain aging clearly emerges at the group level, with suggested applications also at the level of single individual.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: IRCCS San Raffaele Pisana, 00163 Rome, Italy.

ABSTRACT
Physiological brain aging is characterized by synapses loss and neurodegeneration that slowly lead to an age-related decline of cognition. Neural/synaptic redundancy and plastic remodelling of brain networking, also due to mental and physical training, promotes maintenance of brain activity in healthy elderly subjects for everyday life and good social behaviour and intellectual capabilities. However, age is the major risk factor for most common neurodegenerative disorders that impact on cognition, like Alzheimer's disease (AD). Brain electromagnetic activity is a feature of neuronal network function in various brain regions. Modern neurophysiological techniques, such as electroencephalography (EEG) and event-related potentials (ERPs), are useful tools in the investigation of brain cognitive function in normal and pathological aging with an excellent time resolution. These techniques can index normal and abnormal brain aging analysis of corticocortical connectivity and neuronal synchronization of rhythmic oscillations at various frequencies. The present review suggests that discrimination between physiological and pathological brain aging clearly emerges at the group level, with suggested applications also at the level of single individual. The possibility of combining the use of EEG together with biological/neuropsychological markers and structural/functional imaging is promising for a low-cost, non-invasive, and widely available assessment of groups of individuals at-risk.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Grand average of low-resolution brain electromagnetic source tomography (LORETA) solutions (i.e., normalized relative current density at the cortical voxels) modeling the distributed EEG sources for delta, theta, alpha 1, alpha 2, beta 1 (13–20 Hz), and beta 2 (20–30 Hz) bands in normal elderly (Nold), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) groups. The left side of the maps (top view) corresponds to the left hemisphere. Legend: LORETA, low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography. Color scale: all power estimates were scaled based on the averaged maximum value (i.e., alpha 1 power value of occipital region in Nold). The maximal value of power is reported under each column.
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fig1: Grand average of low-resolution brain electromagnetic source tomography (LORETA) solutions (i.e., normalized relative current density at the cortical voxels) modeling the distributed EEG sources for delta, theta, alpha 1, alpha 2, beta 1 (13–20 Hz), and beta 2 (20–30 Hz) bands in normal elderly (Nold), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) groups. The left side of the maps (top view) corresponds to the left hemisphere. Legend: LORETA, low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography. Color scale: all power estimates were scaled based on the averaged maximum value (i.e., alpha 1 power value of occipital region in Nold). The maximal value of power is reported under each column.

Mentions: Assessing preclinical dementia is of keen interest as a clinical research issue, since MCI often precedes frank dementing illness. As the selective cognitive impairments characteristic of MCI are primarily memory-related and not severe enough to exceed standard clinical criteria for AD, their prodromal qualities do not greatly impair daily functioning and can be identified by refined clinical and neuropsychological evaluation. Consistent MCI symptoms 3–5 years following their identification either remain stable or decrease in 30%–50% of the cases, whereas the remaining cases progress toward a frank AD condition or, less frequently, to other dementias. The MCI condition has often been considered a precursor of AD despite the fact that not all the MCI patients develop the Alzheimer disease. Epidemiological and clinical followup studies confirm that MCI reflects a transition state towards mild AD and prompts the idea that early identification of MCI patients can facilitate rehabilitative or pharmacological interventions to slow down the disease progression [103–105]. Figure 1 illustrates MCI effects for low-frequency alpha (8–10.5 Hz) activity from parietal, occipital, and limbic areas that demonstrate an intermediate magnitude in MCI compared to mild AD and normal elderly [38]. Increase of slow EEG power coupled with a decrease in alpha activity is linked to cognitive performance decline in MCI compared to Nold. More important, the spectral magnitude of these sources is correlated negatively with MMSE scores across subjects of the three groups, suggesting that EEG evidence of alpha power decrease in MCI compared to normal subjects is related to behavioral cognition [66, 84, 106–109]. The relative spectral magnitude decrease of posterior low-frequency alpha sources in MCI may be related to an initial selective impairment of the cholinergic basal forebrain, which could induce a sustained increase of the excitatory activity in the cholinergic brainstem pathway [59, 94, 95]. TMS studies indicate that the cortex of AD patients is hyperexcitable and that such hyperexcitability even may offer clues for the differential diagnosis from other dementias in which the cholinergic deficit is not predominant.


Electroencephalographic rhythms in Alzheimer's disease.

Lizio R, Vecchio F, Frisoni GB, Ferri R, Rodriguez G, Babiloni C - Int J Alzheimers Dis (2011)

Grand average of low-resolution brain electromagnetic source tomography (LORETA) solutions (i.e., normalized relative current density at the cortical voxels) modeling the distributed EEG sources for delta, theta, alpha 1, alpha 2, beta 1 (13–20 Hz), and beta 2 (20–30 Hz) bands in normal elderly (Nold), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) groups. The left side of the maps (top view) corresponds to the left hemisphere. Legend: LORETA, low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography. Color scale: all power estimates were scaled based on the averaged maximum value (i.e., alpha 1 power value of occipital region in Nold). The maximal value of power is reported under each column.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3100729&req=5

fig1: Grand average of low-resolution brain electromagnetic source tomography (LORETA) solutions (i.e., normalized relative current density at the cortical voxels) modeling the distributed EEG sources for delta, theta, alpha 1, alpha 2, beta 1 (13–20 Hz), and beta 2 (20–30 Hz) bands in normal elderly (Nold), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) groups. The left side of the maps (top view) corresponds to the left hemisphere. Legend: LORETA, low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography. Color scale: all power estimates were scaled based on the averaged maximum value (i.e., alpha 1 power value of occipital region in Nold). The maximal value of power is reported under each column.
Mentions: Assessing preclinical dementia is of keen interest as a clinical research issue, since MCI often precedes frank dementing illness. As the selective cognitive impairments characteristic of MCI are primarily memory-related and not severe enough to exceed standard clinical criteria for AD, their prodromal qualities do not greatly impair daily functioning and can be identified by refined clinical and neuropsychological evaluation. Consistent MCI symptoms 3–5 years following their identification either remain stable or decrease in 30%–50% of the cases, whereas the remaining cases progress toward a frank AD condition or, less frequently, to other dementias. The MCI condition has often been considered a precursor of AD despite the fact that not all the MCI patients develop the Alzheimer disease. Epidemiological and clinical followup studies confirm that MCI reflects a transition state towards mild AD and prompts the idea that early identification of MCI patients can facilitate rehabilitative or pharmacological interventions to slow down the disease progression [103–105]. Figure 1 illustrates MCI effects for low-frequency alpha (8–10.5 Hz) activity from parietal, occipital, and limbic areas that demonstrate an intermediate magnitude in MCI compared to mild AD and normal elderly [38]. Increase of slow EEG power coupled with a decrease in alpha activity is linked to cognitive performance decline in MCI compared to Nold. More important, the spectral magnitude of these sources is correlated negatively with MMSE scores across subjects of the three groups, suggesting that EEG evidence of alpha power decrease in MCI compared to normal subjects is related to behavioral cognition [66, 84, 106–109]. The relative spectral magnitude decrease of posterior low-frequency alpha sources in MCI may be related to an initial selective impairment of the cholinergic basal forebrain, which could induce a sustained increase of the excitatory activity in the cholinergic brainstem pathway [59, 94, 95]. TMS studies indicate that the cortex of AD patients is hyperexcitable and that such hyperexcitability even may offer clues for the differential diagnosis from other dementias in which the cholinergic deficit is not predominant.

Bottom Line: Modern neurophysiological techniques, such as electroencephalography (EEG) and event-related potentials (ERPs), are useful tools in the investigation of brain cognitive function in normal and pathological aging with an excellent time resolution.These techniques can index normal and abnormal brain aging analysis of corticocortical connectivity and neuronal synchronization of rhythmic oscillations at various frequencies.The present review suggests that discrimination between physiological and pathological brain aging clearly emerges at the group level, with suggested applications also at the level of single individual.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: IRCCS San Raffaele Pisana, 00163 Rome, Italy.

ABSTRACT
Physiological brain aging is characterized by synapses loss and neurodegeneration that slowly lead to an age-related decline of cognition. Neural/synaptic redundancy and plastic remodelling of brain networking, also due to mental and physical training, promotes maintenance of brain activity in healthy elderly subjects for everyday life and good social behaviour and intellectual capabilities. However, age is the major risk factor for most common neurodegenerative disorders that impact on cognition, like Alzheimer's disease (AD). Brain electromagnetic activity is a feature of neuronal network function in various brain regions. Modern neurophysiological techniques, such as electroencephalography (EEG) and event-related potentials (ERPs), are useful tools in the investigation of brain cognitive function in normal and pathological aging with an excellent time resolution. These techniques can index normal and abnormal brain aging analysis of corticocortical connectivity and neuronal synchronization of rhythmic oscillations at various frequencies. The present review suggests that discrimination between physiological and pathological brain aging clearly emerges at the group level, with suggested applications also at the level of single individual. The possibility of combining the use of EEG together with biological/neuropsychological markers and structural/functional imaging is promising for a low-cost, non-invasive, and widely available assessment of groups of individuals at-risk.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus