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Does perception of usefulness of arthroscopic simulators differ with levels of experience?

Tuijthof GJ, Visser P, Sierevelt IN, Van Dijk CN, Kerkhoffs GM - Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. (2011)

Bottom Line: Simulators A and B had equal educational value according to the participants.User-friendliness was judged better for Simulator B although both were graded satisfactory.The perception of usefulness did not differ with level of experience.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Orthopedic Research Center Amsterdam, Academic Medical Center, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands. g.j.tuijthof@amc.uva.nl

ABSTRACT

Background: Some commercial simulators are available for training basic arthroscopic skills. However, it is unclear if these simulators allow training for their intended purposes and whether the perception of usefulness relates to level of experience.

Questions/purposes: We addressed the following questions: (1) Do commercial simulators have construct (times to perform tasks) and face validity (realism), and (2) is the perception of usefulness (educational value and user-friendliness) related to level of experience?

Methods: We evaluated two commercially available virtual reality simulators (Simulators A and B) and recruited 11 and nine novices (no arthroscopies), four and four intermediates (one to 59 arthroscopies), and seven and nine experts (> 60 arthroscopies) to test the devices. To assess construct validity, we recorded the median time per experience group for each of five repetitions of one identical navigation task. To assess face validity, we used a questionnaire to judge up to three simulator characteristic tasks; the questionnaire asked about the realism, perception of educational value, and perception of user-friendliness.

Results: We observed partial construct validity for Simulators A and B and considered face validity satisfactory for both simulators for simulating the outer appearance and human joint, but barely satisfactory for the instruments. Simulators A and B had equal educational value according to the participants. User-friendliness was judged better for Simulator B although both were graded satisfactory. The perception of usefulness did not differ with level of experience.

Conclusions: Our observations suggest training on either simulator is reasonable preparation for real-life arthroscopy, although there is room for improvement for both simulators.

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A graph shows the results of the normalized sum scores for face validity and User-friendliness I. The values are expressed as means with SDs. User-friendliness I is the combined opinion of the intermediates and novices; the other columns are the combined opinions of the experts and the intermediates. The face validity of the outer appearance and intraarticular joint were judged sufficient. The face validity of the instruments was judged barely sufficient for both simulators. Differences were not observed for any aspect of face validity between the simulators. The mean score for User-friendliness I of Simulator B was greater (p < 0.001) than that for Simulator A.
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Fig5: A graph shows the results of the normalized sum scores for face validity and User-friendliness I. The values are expressed as means with SDs. User-friendliness I is the combined opinion of the intermediates and novices; the other columns are the combined opinions of the experts and the intermediates. The face validity of the outer appearance and intraarticular joint were judged sufficient. The face validity of the instruments was judged barely sufficient for both simulators. Differences were not observed for any aspect of face validity between the simulators. The mean score for User-friendliness I of Simulator B was greater (p < 0.001) than that for Simulator A.

Mentions: The mean face validity scores of the outer appearance and simulated intraarticular joint were 7.3 (SD, 1.4) and 6.4 (SD, 1.4) for Simulator A and 8.4 (SD, 0.6) and 6.1 (SD, 0.9) for Simulator B, respectively. Thus, they were judged sufficient by the intermediates and experts (Fig. 5). The mean face validity score of the simulated instruments was 4.9 (SD, 1.5) for Simulator A and 5.7 (SD, 1.2) for Simulator B. Thus, the face validity of the simulated instruments was judged barely sufficient for both simulators (Fig. 5). Differences were not observed for any aspect of face validity between the simulators. The median sum score for Educational Value I was 3 (range, 1–5) for Simulator A and 5 (range, 2–5) for Simulator B (p = 0.009). Simulator A was judged suitable for real-life surgery (Educational Value II) by 10 of 11 participants (91%), as was Simulator B by all 13 participants (100%) (p = 0.46). The mean score of 8.3 (SD, 1.0) for User-friendliness I of Simulator B was greater (p < 0.001) than that for Simulator A (6.5 [SD, 1.3]) (Fig. 5). More (p = 0.002) respondents felt the need to read the manual (User-friendliness II) before operating Simulator A (11 of 15, 73.3%) than before operating Simulator B (two of 13, 15.4%).Fig. 5


Does perception of usefulness of arthroscopic simulators differ with levels of experience?

Tuijthof GJ, Visser P, Sierevelt IN, Van Dijk CN, Kerkhoffs GM - Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. (2011)

A graph shows the results of the normalized sum scores for face validity and User-friendliness I. The values are expressed as means with SDs. User-friendliness I is the combined opinion of the intermediates and novices; the other columns are the combined opinions of the experts and the intermediates. The face validity of the outer appearance and intraarticular joint were judged sufficient. The face validity of the instruments was judged barely sufficient for both simulators. Differences were not observed for any aspect of face validity between the simulators. The mean score for User-friendliness I of Simulator B was greater (p < 0.001) than that for Simulator A.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3094627&req=5

Fig5: A graph shows the results of the normalized sum scores for face validity and User-friendliness I. The values are expressed as means with SDs. User-friendliness I is the combined opinion of the intermediates and novices; the other columns are the combined opinions of the experts and the intermediates. The face validity of the outer appearance and intraarticular joint were judged sufficient. The face validity of the instruments was judged barely sufficient for both simulators. Differences were not observed for any aspect of face validity between the simulators. The mean score for User-friendliness I of Simulator B was greater (p < 0.001) than that for Simulator A.
Mentions: The mean face validity scores of the outer appearance and simulated intraarticular joint were 7.3 (SD, 1.4) and 6.4 (SD, 1.4) for Simulator A and 8.4 (SD, 0.6) and 6.1 (SD, 0.9) for Simulator B, respectively. Thus, they were judged sufficient by the intermediates and experts (Fig. 5). The mean face validity score of the simulated instruments was 4.9 (SD, 1.5) for Simulator A and 5.7 (SD, 1.2) for Simulator B. Thus, the face validity of the simulated instruments was judged barely sufficient for both simulators (Fig. 5). Differences were not observed for any aspect of face validity between the simulators. The median sum score for Educational Value I was 3 (range, 1–5) for Simulator A and 5 (range, 2–5) for Simulator B (p = 0.009). Simulator A was judged suitable for real-life surgery (Educational Value II) by 10 of 11 participants (91%), as was Simulator B by all 13 participants (100%) (p = 0.46). The mean score of 8.3 (SD, 1.0) for User-friendliness I of Simulator B was greater (p < 0.001) than that for Simulator A (6.5 [SD, 1.3]) (Fig. 5). More (p = 0.002) respondents felt the need to read the manual (User-friendliness II) before operating Simulator A (11 of 15, 73.3%) than before operating Simulator B (two of 13, 15.4%).Fig. 5

Bottom Line: Simulators A and B had equal educational value according to the participants.User-friendliness was judged better for Simulator B although both were graded satisfactory.The perception of usefulness did not differ with level of experience.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Orthopedic Research Center Amsterdam, Academic Medical Center, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands. g.j.tuijthof@amc.uva.nl

ABSTRACT

Background: Some commercial simulators are available for training basic arthroscopic skills. However, it is unclear if these simulators allow training for their intended purposes and whether the perception of usefulness relates to level of experience.

Questions/purposes: We addressed the following questions: (1) Do commercial simulators have construct (times to perform tasks) and face validity (realism), and (2) is the perception of usefulness (educational value and user-friendliness) related to level of experience?

Methods: We evaluated two commercially available virtual reality simulators (Simulators A and B) and recruited 11 and nine novices (no arthroscopies), four and four intermediates (one to 59 arthroscopies), and seven and nine experts (> 60 arthroscopies) to test the devices. To assess construct validity, we recorded the median time per experience group for each of five repetitions of one identical navigation task. To assess face validity, we used a questionnaire to judge up to three simulator characteristic tasks; the questionnaire asked about the realism, perception of educational value, and perception of user-friendliness.

Results: We observed partial construct validity for Simulators A and B and considered face validity satisfactory for both simulators for simulating the outer appearance and human joint, but barely satisfactory for the instruments. Simulators A and B had equal educational value according to the participants. User-friendliness was judged better for Simulator B although both were graded satisfactory. The perception of usefulness did not differ with level of experience.

Conclusions: Our observations suggest training on either simulator is reasonable preparation for real-life arthroscopy, although there is room for improvement for both simulators.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus