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Effects of Cynodon dactylon on Stress-Induced Infertility in Male Rats.

Chidrawar V, Chitme H, Patel K, Patel Nj, Racharla V, Dhoraji N, Vadalia K - J Young Pharm (2011)

Bottom Line: Cynodon dactylon (Family: Poaceae) is known to be a tackler in Indian mythology and is offered to Lord Ganesha.It is found everywhere, even on waste land, road side, dry places, and spreads vigorously on cultivated ground.We conclude that active constituents of C. dactylon present in methanolic extract have a potent aphrodisiac and male fertility activity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Shree H. N. Shukla Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Gujarat, India.

ABSTRACT
Cynodon dactylon (Family: Poaceae) is known to be a tackler in Indian mythology and is offered to Lord Ganesha. It is found everywhere, even on waste land, road side, dry places, and spreads vigorously on cultivated ground. This study was carried out with an objective to test if the constituents of this plant are useful in coping stress-induced sexual In this study, we considered immobilization stress to induce male infertility and the effect of C. dactylon in restoration of the dysfunction was evaluated by considering sexual behavioral observations, sexual performance, fructose content of the seminal vesicles, epididymal sperm concentration and histopathological examinations as parameters. Treatment of rats under stress with methanolic extract of C. dactylon has shown a promising effect in overcoming stress-induced sexual dysfunction, sexual performance, fructose content, sperm concentration and its effect on accessory sexual organs and body weight. We conclude that active constituents of C. dactylon present in methanolic extract have a potent aphrodisiac and male fertility activity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Effect of testosterone (15 mg/kg, i.m.) on histopathological changes in stressed rat. Basement membrane, spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids and sertoli sells (H and E, ×400)
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Figure 0001: Effect of testosterone (15 mg/kg, i.m.) on histopathological changes in stressed rat. Basement membrane, spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids and sertoli sells (H and E, ×400)

Mentions: It has been well established that exposure to stressful conditions will lead to various physiopathological conditions including the effects on endocrine system. The affected endocrinal system activates hypothalamo-hypophyseal-gonadal system as well as hypothalamo-hypophyseal-adrenocortical along with neuroendocrine axis, which have a profound disruptive effect on male reproductive function and sexual act by the suppression of testosterone secretion, spermatogenesis and libido.[20] In our study, the group of the animals exposed to stress with a vehicle treatment showed similar results, i.e., stress decreased masculine sexual behavior and sperm count in rats.[21] It is well known that exposure to chronic stress induces lower circulating level of testosterone, prolactin, corticotrophin releasing hormone and also modulated adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH), beta-endorphin and glucocorticoids in hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function and impairs luteinizing-hormone-releasing-hormone (LH-RH) coordination.[22] In our study, results obtained from testosterone treated group [Table 4] of animals showed a significant decrease in latency of first mount, increase in total number of mounts, decrease in intromission interval, increase in the latency of first ejaculation and these results were complemented by increase in total sperm count, fructose content and histopathological examination [Figure 1]. Previous studies have indicated that fructose is a nutrient substance present in seminal plasma. This reducing sugar, if converted by the spermatozoa to lactic acid, provides an important source of energy for sperm cells. This was significantly (P < 0.001) increased and there was also significant (P < 0.05) rise in sperm count in methanolic extract treated group than benzene and aqueous extract treated groups [Table 2], but lesser than testosterone treated group.[23] These findings are also supported by histopathological examinations of testis, sexual behavior and organ to body weight ratio of accessory sexual organs. Histopathological examination on the last day in stressed rats showed a marked decrease in seminiferous tubular diameter bounded by loose intratubular connective tissue, reduction in spermatogenesis, increased interstitial spaces and morphological abnormality despite maintaining germinal epithelial architecture [Figure 2] compared with normal control group which represents normal architecture of the testis [Figure 3]. An increase in the total number of spermatogonium, spermatocytes and spermatids in testosterone treated groups [Figure 1] indicates that testosterone has significant ability in overcoming severe to chronic stress and restoring male sexual act and reproductive system. The postmortem study in group of animals treated with benzene and water extracts has shown significant infiltration of inflammatory cells, narrowing of vasculature and homeostasis in testis at various doses as showed in [Figures 4–6] and [Figures 7–9] respectively, specifically these disturbances are predominant in the high doses of benzene and aqueous extracts as shown in Figure 6 and Figure 12 respectively. Treatment of stressed animals with methanolic extract has shown a dose-dependent ability in restoring the architecture of testis, similar to the effect of testosterone [Figures 10–12]


Effects of Cynodon dactylon on Stress-Induced Infertility in Male Rats.

Chidrawar V, Chitme H, Patel K, Patel Nj, Racharla V, Dhoraji N, Vadalia K - J Young Pharm (2011)

Effect of testosterone (15 mg/kg, i.m.) on histopathological changes in stressed rat. Basement membrane, spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids and sertoli sells (H and E, ×400)
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3094556&req=5

Figure 0001: Effect of testosterone (15 mg/kg, i.m.) on histopathological changes in stressed rat. Basement membrane, spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids and sertoli sells (H and E, ×400)
Mentions: It has been well established that exposure to stressful conditions will lead to various physiopathological conditions including the effects on endocrine system. The affected endocrinal system activates hypothalamo-hypophyseal-gonadal system as well as hypothalamo-hypophyseal-adrenocortical along with neuroendocrine axis, which have a profound disruptive effect on male reproductive function and sexual act by the suppression of testosterone secretion, spermatogenesis and libido.[20] In our study, the group of the animals exposed to stress with a vehicle treatment showed similar results, i.e., stress decreased masculine sexual behavior and sperm count in rats.[21] It is well known that exposure to chronic stress induces lower circulating level of testosterone, prolactin, corticotrophin releasing hormone and also modulated adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH), beta-endorphin and glucocorticoids in hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function and impairs luteinizing-hormone-releasing-hormone (LH-RH) coordination.[22] In our study, results obtained from testosterone treated group [Table 4] of animals showed a significant decrease in latency of first mount, increase in total number of mounts, decrease in intromission interval, increase in the latency of first ejaculation and these results were complemented by increase in total sperm count, fructose content and histopathological examination [Figure 1]. Previous studies have indicated that fructose is a nutrient substance present in seminal plasma. This reducing sugar, if converted by the spermatozoa to lactic acid, provides an important source of energy for sperm cells. This was significantly (P < 0.001) increased and there was also significant (P < 0.05) rise in sperm count in methanolic extract treated group than benzene and aqueous extract treated groups [Table 2], but lesser than testosterone treated group.[23] These findings are also supported by histopathological examinations of testis, sexual behavior and organ to body weight ratio of accessory sexual organs. Histopathological examination on the last day in stressed rats showed a marked decrease in seminiferous tubular diameter bounded by loose intratubular connective tissue, reduction in spermatogenesis, increased interstitial spaces and morphological abnormality despite maintaining germinal epithelial architecture [Figure 2] compared with normal control group which represents normal architecture of the testis [Figure 3]. An increase in the total number of spermatogonium, spermatocytes and spermatids in testosterone treated groups [Figure 1] indicates that testosterone has significant ability in overcoming severe to chronic stress and restoring male sexual act and reproductive system. The postmortem study in group of animals treated with benzene and water extracts has shown significant infiltration of inflammatory cells, narrowing of vasculature and homeostasis in testis at various doses as showed in [Figures 4–6] and [Figures 7–9] respectively, specifically these disturbances are predominant in the high doses of benzene and aqueous extracts as shown in Figure 6 and Figure 12 respectively. Treatment of stressed animals with methanolic extract has shown a dose-dependent ability in restoring the architecture of testis, similar to the effect of testosterone [Figures 10–12]

Bottom Line: Cynodon dactylon (Family: Poaceae) is known to be a tackler in Indian mythology and is offered to Lord Ganesha.It is found everywhere, even on waste land, road side, dry places, and spreads vigorously on cultivated ground.We conclude that active constituents of C. dactylon present in methanolic extract have a potent aphrodisiac and male fertility activity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Shree H. N. Shukla Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Gujarat, India.

ABSTRACT
Cynodon dactylon (Family: Poaceae) is known to be a tackler in Indian mythology and is offered to Lord Ganesha. It is found everywhere, even on waste land, road side, dry places, and spreads vigorously on cultivated ground. This study was carried out with an objective to test if the constituents of this plant are useful in coping stress-induced sexual In this study, we considered immobilization stress to induce male infertility and the effect of C. dactylon in restoration of the dysfunction was evaluated by considering sexual behavioral observations, sexual performance, fructose content of the seminal vesicles, epididymal sperm concentration and histopathological examinations as parameters. Treatment of rats under stress with methanolic extract of C. dactylon has shown a promising effect in overcoming stress-induced sexual dysfunction, sexual performance, fructose content, sperm concentration and its effect on accessory sexual organs and body weight. We conclude that active constituents of C. dactylon present in methanolic extract have a potent aphrodisiac and male fertility activity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus