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Tools for tracking antibiotic resistance.

Lubick N - Environ. Health Perspect. (2011)

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When a team of researchers from Sweden first started measuring chemicals in a river near Patancheru, India, they found shocking concentrations of drugs flowing downstream—for example, levels of the potent antibiotic ciprofloxacin greater than those found in the blood of humans taking the drug... Although Larsson’s team has yet to catalog antibiotic resistance in the local population, people in the region are continually exposed to resistant microbes as they use the river water for agriculture and everyday home life. “This is a huge scary experiment in nature,” Larsson says... The 2011–2015 Strategic Plan of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System, a collaboration between the FDA, CDC, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and state and local health departments, includes efforts to strengthen sampling, reporting, and international and domestic collaborative efforts... Bills aimed at addressing antibiotic resistance were introduced in 2009 in the House of Representatives and the Senate, but foundered... Eventually the answer will most certainly be yes: Bacteria, microbes, and even fungi under stress from high concentrations of drugs might have the ability to replicate DNA snippets and possibly pass them on to other microbial species in the environment, says Dave Ussery, an associate professor of microbial genomics at the Technical University of Denmark... So-called advanced market commitments—where governments pledge to purchase drugs, thus guaranteeing a market—is another option... In its new policy guidance, the WHO calls for global and national commitments to develop drugs and share information on the national costs of inaction, as well as “push” and “pull” incentives to reduce the inherent risks in the initial phases of research and development and to offset the risks of an uncertain market, respectively... In Europe and the U.S., systems of surveillance are in place, but not in most of Africa or Asia,” Raviglione says, referring to health systems, although the same holds true for environmental surveys... Europe and the United States use far more antibiotics by volume as well as newer antibiotics compared with less affluent countries that typically use fewer and older generations of drugs, Raviglione says... This device, connected to the Internet or with databases preloaded, could use the sequence to identify the microbes present to the genus or even species level, then spot genes they might carry for resistance to certain drugs... The test could potentially even predict the effectiveness of specific drugs in individual patients... And yet, in some ways, simple solutions seem to be in the offing... U.S. congressmen recently visited Denmark to learn more about that country’s successful transition away from antibiotic use for growth promotion in swine... Absent such courageous steps, “it’s almost just a matter of time” before antibiotic resistance is transferred to a pathogen that matters for human health, Ussery says. “It’s an enormously frustrating situation,” says Davies, who says he feels he and his colleagues talk a lot about the problem without making much headway at the larger scale.

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Tools for tracking antibiotic resistance.

Lubick N - Environ. Health Perspect. (2011)

© Copyright Policy - public-domain
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3094442&req=5

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

AUTOMATICALLY GENERATED EXCERPT
Please rate it.

When a team of researchers from Sweden first started measuring chemicals in a river near Patancheru, India, they found shocking concentrations of drugs flowing downstream—for example, levels of the potent antibiotic ciprofloxacin greater than those found in the blood of humans taking the drug... Although Larsson’s team has yet to catalog antibiotic resistance in the local population, people in the region are continually exposed to resistant microbes as they use the river water for agriculture and everyday home life. “This is a huge scary experiment in nature,” Larsson says... The 2011–2015 Strategic Plan of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System, a collaboration between the FDA, CDC, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and state and local health departments, includes efforts to strengthen sampling, reporting, and international and domestic collaborative efforts... Bills aimed at addressing antibiotic resistance were introduced in 2009 in the House of Representatives and the Senate, but foundered... Eventually the answer will most certainly be yes: Bacteria, microbes, and even fungi under stress from high concentrations of drugs might have the ability to replicate DNA snippets and possibly pass them on to other microbial species in the environment, says Dave Ussery, an associate professor of microbial genomics at the Technical University of Denmark... So-called advanced market commitments—where governments pledge to purchase drugs, thus guaranteeing a market—is another option... In its new policy guidance, the WHO calls for global and national commitments to develop drugs and share information on the national costs of inaction, as well as “push” and “pull” incentives to reduce the inherent risks in the initial phases of research and development and to offset the risks of an uncertain market, respectively... In Europe and the U.S., systems of surveillance are in place, but not in most of Africa or Asia,” Raviglione says, referring to health systems, although the same holds true for environmental surveys... Europe and the United States use far more antibiotics by volume as well as newer antibiotics compared with less affluent countries that typically use fewer and older generations of drugs, Raviglione says... This device, connected to the Internet or with databases preloaded, could use the sequence to identify the microbes present to the genus or even species level, then spot genes they might carry for resistance to certain drugs... The test could potentially even predict the effectiveness of specific drugs in individual patients... And yet, in some ways, simple solutions seem to be in the offing... U.S. congressmen recently visited Denmark to learn more about that country’s successful transition away from antibiotic use for growth promotion in swine... Absent such courageous steps, “it’s almost just a matter of time” before antibiotic resistance is transferred to a pathogen that matters for human health, Ussery says. “It’s an enormously frustrating situation,” says Davies, who says he feels he and his colleagues talk a lot about the problem without making much headway at the larger scale.

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