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Health impact from air pollution in Thailand: current and future challenges.

Vichit-Vadakan N, Vajanapoom N - Environ. Health Perspect. (2011)

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Emerging from an agricultural base to more industrialization, Thailand now faces many environmental problems, particularly air pollution, resulting in adverse health consequences... The three major sources of air pollution are vehicular emissions in cities, biomass burning and transboundary haze in rural and border areas, and industrial discharges in concentrated industrialized zones... In the rural and border areas, most notably Chiangmai, agricultural burning and forest fires, including transboundary haze from Myanmar, have contributed to high levels of PM10, which have increased to critical levels since 2006 [250 μg/m, 300 μg/m, 175 μg/m, and 220 μg/m in 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009, respectively ]... More importantly, many consecutive days of high PM10 levels resulted in increases in hospital admissions and outpatient visits... Moreover, the Southeast Asian haze that originated in Indonesia has continually affected the health of residents of the southern provinces, particularly in 1996 and 1997, where the maximum PM10 levels reached as high as 314 μg/m... The most severe haze episode occurred in 1997 and resulted in sharp increases in outpatient visits (26%) and hospital admissions (33% for all respiratory, 36% for pneumonia, 40% for bronchitis/chronic pulmonary obstructive disease, 12% for asthma) within a period of a few months... Several studies worldwide have demonstrated that PM10 is associated with premature mortality and a wide range of morbidity outcomes... As part of the Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA) multicities study, results for Bangkok showed that each 10-μg/m increase in PM10 is associated with a 1.25% increase in all-cause mortality, which is higher than for the three other participating cities [0.53% for Hong Kong, 0.26% for Shanghai, and 0.43% for Wuhan ] and higher than multicities studies conducted in Western countries... The higher effects in Bangkok may be related to high temperatures in Bangkok throughout the year, higher exposures to air pollution from longer periods of time spent outdoors, and less availability and use of air-conditioning... Obtaining sustainable development that balances environmental conservation and the well-being of the population remains a challenge for Thailand... In national strategies for development, policy makers often rely only on economic information fbecause of the lack of empirical data on health, social, and environmental impacts from developmental policies and projects... Fostering and strengthening epidemiological research in Thailand not only provides the necessary perspective for policy development but contributes to the larger body of knowledge in environmental health.

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Nitaya Vajanapoom
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f2-ehp-119-a197: Nitaya Vajanapoom


Health impact from air pollution in Thailand: current and future challenges.

Vichit-Vadakan N, Vajanapoom N - Environ. Health Perspect. (2011)

Nitaya Vajanapoom
© Copyright Policy - public-domain
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3094431&req=5

f2-ehp-119-a197: Nitaya Vajanapoom

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

AUTOMATICALLY GENERATED EXCERPT
Please rate it.

Emerging from an agricultural base to more industrialization, Thailand now faces many environmental problems, particularly air pollution, resulting in adverse health consequences... The three major sources of air pollution are vehicular emissions in cities, biomass burning and transboundary haze in rural and border areas, and industrial discharges in concentrated industrialized zones... In the rural and border areas, most notably Chiangmai, agricultural burning and forest fires, including transboundary haze from Myanmar, have contributed to high levels of PM10, which have increased to critical levels since 2006 [250 μg/m, 300 μg/m, 175 μg/m, and 220 μg/m in 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009, respectively ]... More importantly, many consecutive days of high PM10 levels resulted in increases in hospital admissions and outpatient visits... Moreover, the Southeast Asian haze that originated in Indonesia has continually affected the health of residents of the southern provinces, particularly in 1996 and 1997, where the maximum PM10 levels reached as high as 314 μg/m... The most severe haze episode occurred in 1997 and resulted in sharp increases in outpatient visits (26%) and hospital admissions (33% for all respiratory, 36% for pneumonia, 40% for bronchitis/chronic pulmonary obstructive disease, 12% for asthma) within a period of a few months... Several studies worldwide have demonstrated that PM10 is associated with premature mortality and a wide range of morbidity outcomes... As part of the Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA) multicities study, results for Bangkok showed that each 10-μg/m increase in PM10 is associated with a 1.25% increase in all-cause mortality, which is higher than for the three other participating cities [0.53% for Hong Kong, 0.26% for Shanghai, and 0.43% for Wuhan ] and higher than multicities studies conducted in Western countries... The higher effects in Bangkok may be related to high temperatures in Bangkok throughout the year, higher exposures to air pollution from longer periods of time spent outdoors, and less availability and use of air-conditioning... Obtaining sustainable development that balances environmental conservation and the well-being of the population remains a challenge for Thailand... In national strategies for development, policy makers often rely only on economic information fbecause of the lack of empirical data on health, social, and environmental impacts from developmental policies and projects... Fostering and strengthening epidemiological research in Thailand not only provides the necessary perspective for policy development but contributes to the larger body of knowledge in environmental health.

Show MeSH