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Canine leishmaniosis and its relationship to human visceral leishmaniasis in Eastern Uzbekistan.

Kovalenko DA, Razakov SA, Ponirovsky EN, Warburg A, Nasyrova RM, Ponomareva VI, Fatullaeva AA, Nasereddin A, Klement E, Alam MZ, Schnur LF, Jaffe CL, Schönian G, Baneth G - Parasit Vectors (2011)

Bottom Line: These analyses revealed that the strains belong to the most common zymodeme of L. infantum, i.e., MON-1, and form a unique group when compared to MON-1 strains from other geographical regions.The data obtained through this study confirm the existence of an active focus of VL in the Namangan region of Uzbekistan.The fact that L. infantum was the causative agent of canine infection with typical clinical signs, and also of human infection affecting only infants, suggests that a zoonotic form of VL similar in epidemiology to Mediterranean VL is present in Uzbekistan.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Isaev Institute, Samarkand, Uzbekistan.

ABSTRACT

Background: The Namangan Region in the Pap District, located in Eastern Uzbekistan is the main focus of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Uzbekistan. In total, 28 cases of human VL were registered during 2006-2008 in this region. A study on the epidemiology of VL in this area was carried out in 2007-2008 in the villages of Chodak, Oltinkan, Gulistan and Chorkesar located at elevations of 900-1200 above sea level.

Results: A total of 162 dogs were tested for Leishmania infection. Blood was drawn for serology and PCR. When clinical signs of the disease were present, aspirates from lymph nodes and the spleen were taken. Forty-two dogs (25.9%) had clinical signs suggestive of VL and 51 (31.5%) were sero-positive. ITS-1 PCR was performed for 135 dogs using blood and tissue samples and 40 (29.6%) of them were PCR-positive. Leishmanial parasites were cultured from lymph node or spleen aspirates from 10 dogs.Eight Leishmania strains isolated from dogs were typed by multi-locus microsatellite typing (MLMT) and by multilocus enzyme electrophoretic analysis (MLEE), using a 15 enzyme system. These analyses revealed that the strains belong to the most common zymodeme of L. infantum, i.e., MON-1, and form a unique group when compared to MON-1 strains from other geographical regions.

Conclusions: The data obtained through this study confirm the existence of an active focus of VL in the Namangan region of Uzbekistan. The fact that L. infantum was the causative agent of canine infection with typical clinical signs, and also of human infection affecting only infants, suggests that a zoonotic form of VL similar in epidemiology to Mediterranean VL is present in Uzbekistan.

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Map of Central Asia. A map of Central Asia showing the study area located in Eastern Uzbekistan.
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Figure 1: Map of Central Asia. A map of Central Asia showing the study area located in Eastern Uzbekistan.

Mentions: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has been reported for more than half a decade from the Fergana valley and the foothills surrounding this valley in the eastern part of the central Asian republic of Uzbekistan [1]. The Pap district in the Namangan Region, located in the Western Fergana is a major stable focus of VL which borders Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan (Figure 1) where VL has also been reported [2,3]. In total, 28 cases of human VL were registered during 2006-2008 in the Namangan region of which all were children, all but one younger than four years old [4]. The causative agent of the disease in this area is Leishmania infantum [5], and the suspected vector is the sand fly Phlebotomus longiductus [3].


Canine leishmaniosis and its relationship to human visceral leishmaniasis in Eastern Uzbekistan.

Kovalenko DA, Razakov SA, Ponirovsky EN, Warburg A, Nasyrova RM, Ponomareva VI, Fatullaeva AA, Nasereddin A, Klement E, Alam MZ, Schnur LF, Jaffe CL, Schönian G, Baneth G - Parasit Vectors (2011)

Map of Central Asia. A map of Central Asia showing the study area located in Eastern Uzbekistan.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3094397&req=5

Figure 1: Map of Central Asia. A map of Central Asia showing the study area located in Eastern Uzbekistan.
Mentions: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has been reported for more than half a decade from the Fergana valley and the foothills surrounding this valley in the eastern part of the central Asian republic of Uzbekistan [1]. The Pap district in the Namangan Region, located in the Western Fergana is a major stable focus of VL which borders Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan (Figure 1) where VL has also been reported [2,3]. In total, 28 cases of human VL were registered during 2006-2008 in the Namangan region of which all were children, all but one younger than four years old [4]. The causative agent of the disease in this area is Leishmania infantum [5], and the suspected vector is the sand fly Phlebotomus longiductus [3].

Bottom Line: These analyses revealed that the strains belong to the most common zymodeme of L. infantum, i.e., MON-1, and form a unique group when compared to MON-1 strains from other geographical regions.The data obtained through this study confirm the existence of an active focus of VL in the Namangan region of Uzbekistan.The fact that L. infantum was the causative agent of canine infection with typical clinical signs, and also of human infection affecting only infants, suggests that a zoonotic form of VL similar in epidemiology to Mediterranean VL is present in Uzbekistan.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Isaev Institute, Samarkand, Uzbekistan.

ABSTRACT

Background: The Namangan Region in the Pap District, located in Eastern Uzbekistan is the main focus of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Uzbekistan. In total, 28 cases of human VL were registered during 2006-2008 in this region. A study on the epidemiology of VL in this area was carried out in 2007-2008 in the villages of Chodak, Oltinkan, Gulistan and Chorkesar located at elevations of 900-1200 above sea level.

Results: A total of 162 dogs were tested for Leishmania infection. Blood was drawn for serology and PCR. When clinical signs of the disease were present, aspirates from lymph nodes and the spleen were taken. Forty-two dogs (25.9%) had clinical signs suggestive of VL and 51 (31.5%) were sero-positive. ITS-1 PCR was performed for 135 dogs using blood and tissue samples and 40 (29.6%) of them were PCR-positive. Leishmanial parasites were cultured from lymph node or spleen aspirates from 10 dogs.Eight Leishmania strains isolated from dogs were typed by multi-locus microsatellite typing (MLMT) and by multilocus enzyme electrophoretic analysis (MLEE), using a 15 enzyme system. These analyses revealed that the strains belong to the most common zymodeme of L. infantum, i.e., MON-1, and form a unique group when compared to MON-1 strains from other geographical regions.

Conclusions: The data obtained through this study confirm the existence of an active focus of VL in the Namangan region of Uzbekistan. The fact that L. infantum was the causative agent of canine infection with typical clinical signs, and also of human infection affecting only infants, suggests that a zoonotic form of VL similar in epidemiology to Mediterranean VL is present in Uzbekistan.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus