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Ingestion of micronutrient fortified breakfast cereal has no influence on immune function in healthy children: a randomized controlled trial.

Nieman DC, Henson DA, Sha W - Nutr J (2011)

Bottom Line: The "medium" fortified cereal contained B-complex vitamins, vitamins A and C, iron, zinc, and calcium, with the addition of vitamin E and higher amounts of vitamins A and C, and zinc in the "high" group.Subjects ingested 3337±851 g cereal during the 2-month study, which represented 14% of total diet energy intake and 20-85% of selected vitamins and minerals.Data from this study indicate that ingestion of breakfast cereal fortified with a micronutrient blend for two winter months by healthy, growing children does not significantly influence biomarkers for immune function or URTI rates.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Human Performance Lab, North Carolina Research Campus, Kannapolis, NC 28081, USA. niemandc@appstate.edu

ABSTRACT

Background: This study investigated the influence of 2-months ingestion of an "immune" nutrient fortified breakfast cereal on immune function and upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) in healthy children during the winter season.

Methods: Subjects included 73 children (N=42 males, N=31 females) ranging in age from 7 to 13 years (mean±SD age, 9.9±1.7 years), and 65 completed all phases of the study. Subjects were randomized to one of three groups--low, moderate, or high fortification--with breakfast cereals administered in double blinded fashion. The "medium" fortified cereal contained B-complex vitamins, vitamins A and C, iron, zinc, and calcium, with the addition of vitamin E and higher amounts of vitamins A and C, and zinc in the "high" group. Immune measures included delayed-typed hypersensitivity, global IgG antibody response over four weeks to pneumococcal vaccination, salivary IgA concentration, natural killer cell activity, and granulocyte phagocytosis and oxidative burst activity. Subjects under parental supervision filled in a daily log using URTI symptoms codes.

Results: Subjects ingested 3337±851 g cereal during the 2-month study, which represented 14% of total diet energy intake and 20-85% of selected vitamins and minerals. Despite significant increases in nutrient intake, URTI rates and pre- to- post-study changes in all immune function measures did not differ between groups.

Conclusions: Data from this study indicate that ingestion of breakfast cereal fortified with a micronutrient blend for two winter months by healthy, growing children does not significantly influence biomarkers for immune function or URTI rates.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

The 4-week global IgG response to pneumococcal vaccination did not differ between supplementation groups (interaction effect, p = 0.7862).
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Figure 2: The 4-week global IgG response to pneumococcal vaccination did not differ between supplementation groups (interaction effect, p = 0.7862).

Mentions: The pattern of change in leukocyte subset counts did not vary significantly between groups (data not shown). Pre- to post-study changes in natural killer cell function (Table 3), granulocyte phagocytosis and oxidative burst activity (Table 4), salivary IgA concentration and secretion rate (Table 5), the global IgG response to pneumococcal vaccination (Figure 2), and DTH response (Table 6) did not differ significantly between groups.


Ingestion of micronutrient fortified breakfast cereal has no influence on immune function in healthy children: a randomized controlled trial.

Nieman DC, Henson DA, Sha W - Nutr J (2011)

The 4-week global IgG response to pneumococcal vaccination did not differ between supplementation groups (interaction effect, p = 0.7862).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3094279&req=5

Figure 2: The 4-week global IgG response to pneumococcal vaccination did not differ between supplementation groups (interaction effect, p = 0.7862).
Mentions: The pattern of change in leukocyte subset counts did not vary significantly between groups (data not shown). Pre- to post-study changes in natural killer cell function (Table 3), granulocyte phagocytosis and oxidative burst activity (Table 4), salivary IgA concentration and secretion rate (Table 5), the global IgG response to pneumococcal vaccination (Figure 2), and DTH response (Table 6) did not differ significantly between groups.

Bottom Line: The "medium" fortified cereal contained B-complex vitamins, vitamins A and C, iron, zinc, and calcium, with the addition of vitamin E and higher amounts of vitamins A and C, and zinc in the "high" group.Subjects ingested 3337±851 g cereal during the 2-month study, which represented 14% of total diet energy intake and 20-85% of selected vitamins and minerals.Data from this study indicate that ingestion of breakfast cereal fortified with a micronutrient blend for two winter months by healthy, growing children does not significantly influence biomarkers for immune function or URTI rates.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Human Performance Lab, North Carolina Research Campus, Kannapolis, NC 28081, USA. niemandc@appstate.edu

ABSTRACT

Background: This study investigated the influence of 2-months ingestion of an "immune" nutrient fortified breakfast cereal on immune function and upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) in healthy children during the winter season.

Methods: Subjects included 73 children (N=42 males, N=31 females) ranging in age from 7 to 13 years (mean±SD age, 9.9±1.7 years), and 65 completed all phases of the study. Subjects were randomized to one of three groups--low, moderate, or high fortification--with breakfast cereals administered in double blinded fashion. The "medium" fortified cereal contained B-complex vitamins, vitamins A and C, iron, zinc, and calcium, with the addition of vitamin E and higher amounts of vitamins A and C, and zinc in the "high" group. Immune measures included delayed-typed hypersensitivity, global IgG antibody response over four weeks to pneumococcal vaccination, salivary IgA concentration, natural killer cell activity, and granulocyte phagocytosis and oxidative burst activity. Subjects under parental supervision filled in a daily log using URTI symptoms codes.

Results: Subjects ingested 3337±851 g cereal during the 2-month study, which represented 14% of total diet energy intake and 20-85% of selected vitamins and minerals. Despite significant increases in nutrient intake, URTI rates and pre- to- post-study changes in all immune function measures did not differ between groups.

Conclusions: Data from this study indicate that ingestion of breakfast cereal fortified with a micronutrient blend for two winter months by healthy, growing children does not significantly influence biomarkers for immune function or URTI rates.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus