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Ingestion of micronutrient fortified breakfast cereal has no influence on immune function in healthy children: a randomized controlled trial.

Nieman DC, Henson DA, Sha W - Nutr J (2011)

Bottom Line: The "medium" fortified cereal contained B-complex vitamins, vitamins A and C, iron, zinc, and calcium, with the addition of vitamin E and higher amounts of vitamins A and C, and zinc in the "high" group.Subjects ingested 3337±851 g cereal during the 2-month study, which represented 14% of total diet energy intake and 20-85% of selected vitamins and minerals.Data from this study indicate that ingestion of breakfast cereal fortified with a micronutrient blend for two winter months by healthy, growing children does not significantly influence biomarkers for immune function or URTI rates.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Human Performance Lab, North Carolina Research Campus, Kannapolis, NC 28081, USA. niemandc@appstate.edu

ABSTRACT

Background: This study investigated the influence of 2-months ingestion of an "immune" nutrient fortified breakfast cereal on immune function and upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) in healthy children during the winter season.

Methods: Subjects included 73 children (N=42 males, N=31 females) ranging in age from 7 to 13 years (mean±SD age, 9.9±1.7 years), and 65 completed all phases of the study. Subjects were randomized to one of three groups--low, moderate, or high fortification--with breakfast cereals administered in double blinded fashion. The "medium" fortified cereal contained B-complex vitamins, vitamins A and C, iron, zinc, and calcium, with the addition of vitamin E and higher amounts of vitamins A and C, and zinc in the "high" group. Immune measures included delayed-typed hypersensitivity, global IgG antibody response over four weeks to pneumococcal vaccination, salivary IgA concentration, natural killer cell activity, and granulocyte phagocytosis and oxidative burst activity. Subjects under parental supervision filled in a daily log using URTI symptoms codes.

Results: Subjects ingested 3337±851 g cereal during the 2-month study, which represented 14% of total diet energy intake and 20-85% of selected vitamins and minerals. Despite significant increases in nutrient intake, URTI rates and pre- to- post-study changes in all immune function measures did not differ between groups.

Conclusions: Data from this study indicate that ingestion of breakfast cereal fortified with a micronutrient blend for two winter months by healthy, growing children does not significantly influence biomarkers for immune function or URTI rates.

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The percentage contribution of the fortified cereal to total nutrient intake after one and two months supplementation.
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Figure 1: The percentage contribution of the fortified cereal to total nutrient intake after one and two months supplementation.

Mentions: Seventy-three children (55% male, 45% female) started the study, and 65 adhered to all aspects of the study design and were included in the statistical analysis. Groups did not differ significantly in subject characteristics, and data are provided in Table 1 for all 65 subjects completing the study. Subjects consumed an average of 3337 ± 851 g cereal during the two month study, and this quantity did not vary significantly between groups. Nutrient intake (combining self-selected diet and fortified cereal) is summarized in Table 2 for each group. In comparison to the low group, intake of B-complex vitamins, vitamin A, zinc, and iron was elevated in the medium and high groups at 1- and 2-months, with vitamins E and C elevated in the high group. Figure 1 depicts the percentage contribution of the fortified cereal to total nutrient intake. The cereal supplement represented 13.4 ± 6.6, 15.3 ± 4.3, and 12.7 ± 2.9% of total energy intake during the study period for low, medium, and high groups, respectively, and contributed ~20% to 85% of the nutrients listed.


Ingestion of micronutrient fortified breakfast cereal has no influence on immune function in healthy children: a randomized controlled trial.

Nieman DC, Henson DA, Sha W - Nutr J (2011)

The percentage contribution of the fortified cereal to total nutrient intake after one and two months supplementation.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3094279&req=5

Figure 1: The percentage contribution of the fortified cereal to total nutrient intake after one and two months supplementation.
Mentions: Seventy-three children (55% male, 45% female) started the study, and 65 adhered to all aspects of the study design and were included in the statistical analysis. Groups did not differ significantly in subject characteristics, and data are provided in Table 1 for all 65 subjects completing the study. Subjects consumed an average of 3337 ± 851 g cereal during the two month study, and this quantity did not vary significantly between groups. Nutrient intake (combining self-selected diet and fortified cereal) is summarized in Table 2 for each group. In comparison to the low group, intake of B-complex vitamins, vitamin A, zinc, and iron was elevated in the medium and high groups at 1- and 2-months, with vitamins E and C elevated in the high group. Figure 1 depicts the percentage contribution of the fortified cereal to total nutrient intake. The cereal supplement represented 13.4 ± 6.6, 15.3 ± 4.3, and 12.7 ± 2.9% of total energy intake during the study period for low, medium, and high groups, respectively, and contributed ~20% to 85% of the nutrients listed.

Bottom Line: The "medium" fortified cereal contained B-complex vitamins, vitamins A and C, iron, zinc, and calcium, with the addition of vitamin E and higher amounts of vitamins A and C, and zinc in the "high" group.Subjects ingested 3337±851 g cereal during the 2-month study, which represented 14% of total diet energy intake and 20-85% of selected vitamins and minerals.Data from this study indicate that ingestion of breakfast cereal fortified with a micronutrient blend for two winter months by healthy, growing children does not significantly influence biomarkers for immune function or URTI rates.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Human Performance Lab, North Carolina Research Campus, Kannapolis, NC 28081, USA. niemandc@appstate.edu

ABSTRACT

Background: This study investigated the influence of 2-months ingestion of an "immune" nutrient fortified breakfast cereal on immune function and upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) in healthy children during the winter season.

Methods: Subjects included 73 children (N=42 males, N=31 females) ranging in age from 7 to 13 years (mean±SD age, 9.9±1.7 years), and 65 completed all phases of the study. Subjects were randomized to one of three groups--low, moderate, or high fortification--with breakfast cereals administered in double blinded fashion. The "medium" fortified cereal contained B-complex vitamins, vitamins A and C, iron, zinc, and calcium, with the addition of vitamin E and higher amounts of vitamins A and C, and zinc in the "high" group. Immune measures included delayed-typed hypersensitivity, global IgG antibody response over four weeks to pneumococcal vaccination, salivary IgA concentration, natural killer cell activity, and granulocyte phagocytosis and oxidative burst activity. Subjects under parental supervision filled in a daily log using URTI symptoms codes.

Results: Subjects ingested 3337±851 g cereal during the 2-month study, which represented 14% of total diet energy intake and 20-85% of selected vitamins and minerals. Despite significant increases in nutrient intake, URTI rates and pre- to- post-study changes in all immune function measures did not differ between groups.

Conclusions: Data from this study indicate that ingestion of breakfast cereal fortified with a micronutrient blend for two winter months by healthy, growing children does not significantly influence biomarkers for immune function or URTI rates.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus