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How diverse is the diet of adult South Africans?

Labadarios D, Steyn NP, Nel J - Nutr J (2011)

Bottom Line: There were significant differences in DDS by Living Standards Mean (LSM) analysis (p<0.05) with the lowest LSM group having the lowest mean DDS (2.93).The most commonly consumed food groups were cereals/roots; meat/fish; dairy and vegetables other than vitamin A rich.Overall the majority of South Africans consumed a diet low in dietary variety.The tribal areas and informal urban areas were worst affected and eggs, legumes and vitamin A rich fruit and vegetables, were the least consumed.

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Affiliation: Centre for the Study of Social and Environmental Determinants of Nutrition, Knowledge Systems: Human Sciences Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa.

ABSTRACT

Background: The objective of the current study was to measure dietary diversity in South Africans aged 16 years and older from all population groups as a proxy of food security.

Methods: A cross-sectional study representative of adults from all specified ages, provinces, geographic localities, and socio-economic strata in South Africa was used (n=3287). Trained interviewers visited participants at their homes during the survey. Dietary data was collected by means of a face validated 24 hour recall which was not quantified. A dietary diversity score (DDS) was calculated by counting each of 9 food groups. A DDS<4 was regarded as reflecting poor dietary diversity and poor food security.

Results: The provinces with the highest prevalence of poor dietary diversity (DDS<4) were Limpopo (61.8%) and the Eastern Cape (59.6%). By contrast, only 15.7% of participants in Western Cape had a low score. Participants in tribal areas (63.9%) and informal urban areas (55.7%) were by far the worst affected. There were significant differences in DDS by Living Standards Mean (LSM) analysis (p<0.05) with the lowest LSM group having the lowest mean DDS (2.93).The most commonly consumed food groups were cereals/roots; meat/fish; dairy and vegetables other than vitamin A rich. Eggs, legumes, and vitamin A rich fruit and vegetables were the least consumed.

Conclusion: Overall the majority of South Africans consumed a diet low in dietary variety. The tribal areas and informal urban areas were worst affected and eggs, legumes and vitamin A rich fruit and vegetables, were the least consumed.

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Percent of the population (with 95th CI) with a dietary diversity score less than 4 according to geographic area.
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Figure 2: Percent of the population (with 95th CI) with a dietary diversity score less than 4 according to geographic area.

Mentions: A comparison of geographic areas (Table 2) showed that urban formal areas had the highest mean DDS of 4.42[CI: 4.34-4.50] while tribal areas had the lowest mean score; which was significantly lower than any other group (p < 0.05) . Just over one third of households nationally and just under two thirds of households in tribal areas had a DDS <4, respectively (Figure 2). After cereals, in all geographic areas, meat and dairy were most commonly consumed food groups. Chi-square analysis showed significant differences between geographic areas, particularly in terms of other fruit ( not vitamin A rich) (p < 0.001); other vegetables ( not vitamin A rich) (p < 0.05); legumes and nuts (p < 0.01); fats and oils (p = < 0.001); meat (p < 0.001); dairy (p < 0.001); and eggs (p < 0.001).


How diverse is the diet of adult South Africans?

Labadarios D, Steyn NP, Nel J - Nutr J (2011)

Percent of the population (with 95th CI) with a dietary diversity score less than 4 according to geographic area.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3094278&req=5

Figure 2: Percent of the population (with 95th CI) with a dietary diversity score less than 4 according to geographic area.
Mentions: A comparison of geographic areas (Table 2) showed that urban formal areas had the highest mean DDS of 4.42[CI: 4.34-4.50] while tribal areas had the lowest mean score; which was significantly lower than any other group (p < 0.05) . Just over one third of households nationally and just under two thirds of households in tribal areas had a DDS <4, respectively (Figure 2). After cereals, in all geographic areas, meat and dairy were most commonly consumed food groups. Chi-square analysis showed significant differences between geographic areas, particularly in terms of other fruit ( not vitamin A rich) (p < 0.001); other vegetables ( not vitamin A rich) (p < 0.05); legumes and nuts (p < 0.01); fats and oils (p = < 0.001); meat (p < 0.001); dairy (p < 0.001); and eggs (p < 0.001).

Bottom Line: There were significant differences in DDS by Living Standards Mean (LSM) analysis (p<0.05) with the lowest LSM group having the lowest mean DDS (2.93).The most commonly consumed food groups were cereals/roots; meat/fish; dairy and vegetables other than vitamin A rich.Overall the majority of South Africans consumed a diet low in dietary variety.The tribal areas and informal urban areas were worst affected and eggs, legumes and vitamin A rich fruit and vegetables, were the least consumed.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for the Study of Social and Environmental Determinants of Nutrition, Knowledge Systems: Human Sciences Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa.

ABSTRACT

Background: The objective of the current study was to measure dietary diversity in South Africans aged 16 years and older from all population groups as a proxy of food security.

Methods: A cross-sectional study representative of adults from all specified ages, provinces, geographic localities, and socio-economic strata in South Africa was used (n=3287). Trained interviewers visited participants at their homes during the survey. Dietary data was collected by means of a face validated 24 hour recall which was not quantified. A dietary diversity score (DDS) was calculated by counting each of 9 food groups. A DDS<4 was regarded as reflecting poor dietary diversity and poor food security.

Results: The provinces with the highest prevalence of poor dietary diversity (DDS<4) were Limpopo (61.8%) and the Eastern Cape (59.6%). By contrast, only 15.7% of participants in Western Cape had a low score. Participants in tribal areas (63.9%) and informal urban areas (55.7%) were by far the worst affected. There were significant differences in DDS by Living Standards Mean (LSM) analysis (p<0.05) with the lowest LSM group having the lowest mean DDS (2.93).The most commonly consumed food groups were cereals/roots; meat/fish; dairy and vegetables other than vitamin A rich. Eggs, legumes, and vitamin A rich fruit and vegetables were the least consumed.

Conclusion: Overall the majority of South Africans consumed a diet low in dietary variety. The tribal areas and informal urban areas were worst affected and eggs, legumes and vitamin A rich fruit and vegetables, were the least consumed.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus