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Silencing signals in plants: a long journey for small RNAs.

Molnar A, Melnyk C, Baulcombe DC - Genome Biol. (2011)

Bottom Line: Recent research shows that short RNA molecules act as mobile signals that direct mRNA cleavage and DNA methylation in recipient cells.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EA, UK. am798@cam.ac.uk

ABSTRACT
Recent research shows that short RNA molecules act as mobile signals that direct mRNA cleavage and DNA methylation in recipient cells.

Show MeSH
Mobile silencing RNAs and their activity. Mature miRNAs (black) are probably mobile because they appear in recipient neighboring cells, phloem and distant tissue. Their physiologically active mobile form is not conclusively known, however, and might include a mobile precursor RNA. siRNAs (red) move from cell to cell and over long distances to direct RNA cleavage and DNA methylation. However, many aspects of this process remain unknown as indicated by question marks. There is evidence that miRNAs and siRNAs can move from the shoot to the root; however, very little is known about the reciprocal movement and activity of mobile sRNAs.
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Figure 3: Mobile silencing RNAs and their activity. Mature miRNAs (black) are probably mobile because they appear in recipient neighboring cells, phloem and distant tissue. Their physiologically active mobile form is not conclusively known, however, and might include a mobile precursor RNA. siRNAs (red) move from cell to cell and over long distances to direct RNA cleavage and DNA methylation. However, many aspects of this process remain unknown as indicated by question marks. There is evidence that miRNAs and siRNAs can move from the shoot to the root; however, very little is known about the reciprocal movement and activity of mobile sRNAs.

Mentions: Other evidence is also consistent with movement of 21-nt sRNAs of various types. For example, artificial miRNAs (amiRNAs) can move short distances in leaves [45] or between the pollen vegetative cell cytoplasm and the sperm cells [46]. Endogenous 21-nt miRNAs could also be mobile between shoots and roots (miR399 [47]) and within the roots (miR165a and miR166b [48]). Endogenous 21-nt tasiRNAs can move from the adaxial (upper) to abaxial (lower) side of the leaf to influence leaf polarity and development [49,50]. In addition, grafting experiments revealed that endogenous inverted repeat (IR71)-specific siRNAs of 21 nt, 22 nt and 24 nt are also mobile in Arabidopsis [44], although these experiments did not conclusively rule out that the sRNA precursors are the mobile form of RNA (Figure 3).


Silencing signals in plants: a long journey for small RNAs.

Molnar A, Melnyk C, Baulcombe DC - Genome Biol. (2011)

Mobile silencing RNAs and their activity. Mature miRNAs (black) are probably mobile because they appear in recipient neighboring cells, phloem and distant tissue. Their physiologically active mobile form is not conclusively known, however, and might include a mobile precursor RNA. siRNAs (red) move from cell to cell and over long distances to direct RNA cleavage and DNA methylation. However, many aspects of this process remain unknown as indicated by question marks. There is evidence that miRNAs and siRNAs can move from the shoot to the root; however, very little is known about the reciprocal movement and activity of mobile sRNAs.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3091295&req=5

Figure 3: Mobile silencing RNAs and their activity. Mature miRNAs (black) are probably mobile because they appear in recipient neighboring cells, phloem and distant tissue. Their physiologically active mobile form is not conclusively known, however, and might include a mobile precursor RNA. siRNAs (red) move from cell to cell and over long distances to direct RNA cleavage and DNA methylation. However, many aspects of this process remain unknown as indicated by question marks. There is evidence that miRNAs and siRNAs can move from the shoot to the root; however, very little is known about the reciprocal movement and activity of mobile sRNAs.
Mentions: Other evidence is also consistent with movement of 21-nt sRNAs of various types. For example, artificial miRNAs (amiRNAs) can move short distances in leaves [45] or between the pollen vegetative cell cytoplasm and the sperm cells [46]. Endogenous 21-nt miRNAs could also be mobile between shoots and roots (miR399 [47]) and within the roots (miR165a and miR166b [48]). Endogenous 21-nt tasiRNAs can move from the adaxial (upper) to abaxial (lower) side of the leaf to influence leaf polarity and development [49,50]. In addition, grafting experiments revealed that endogenous inverted repeat (IR71)-specific siRNAs of 21 nt, 22 nt and 24 nt are also mobile in Arabidopsis [44], although these experiments did not conclusively rule out that the sRNA precursors are the mobile form of RNA (Figure 3).

Bottom Line: Recent research shows that short RNA molecules act as mobile signals that direct mRNA cleavage and DNA methylation in recipient cells.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EA, UK. am798@cam.ac.uk

ABSTRACT
Recent research shows that short RNA molecules act as mobile signals that direct mRNA cleavage and DNA methylation in recipient cells.

Show MeSH