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Dendritic spines and development: towards a unifying model of spinogenesis--a present day review of Cajal's histological slides and drawings.

García-López P, García-Marín V, Freire M - Neural Plast. (2011)

Bottom Line: Hence, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying their generation and plasticity, both during development and in adulthood, are a matter of fundamental and practical interest.Indeed, a better understanding of these mechanisms should provide clues to the development of novel clinical therapies.Based on the data available in the literature regarding the formation of dendritic spines during development and our results, we propose a unifying model for dendritic spine development.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Neurobiology, Instituto Cajal, CSIC, Avenida Doctor Arce 37, 28002 Madrid, Spain.

ABSTRACT
Dendritic spines receive the majority of excitatory connections in the central nervous system, and, thus, they are key structures in the regulation of neural activity. Hence, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying their generation and plasticity, both during development and in adulthood, are a matter of fundamental and practical interest. Indeed, a better understanding of these mechanisms should provide clues to the development of novel clinical therapies. Here, we present original results obtained from high-quality images of Cajal's histological preparations, stored at the Cajal Museum (Instituto Cajal, CSIC), obtained using extended focus imaging, three-dimensional reconstruction, and rendering. Based on the data available in the literature regarding the formation of dendritic spines during development and our results, we propose a unifying model for dendritic spine development.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

(a) Depicts three-dimensional reconstructions, granule cell, olfactory bulb, one-month-old dog, Cajal histological preparation, Golgi-method. (b) Filopodia, protospines and spines; 1–10: inner dendrites (above the soma); 11–15: peripheral dendrites (below the soma); 16–20: peripheral apical tuft. (c) Filopodia, protospines and spines of the peripheral apical tuft. Filopodia and protospines are color coded in green. The arrow in (b) 18 points to a very big head with long neck possibly a gemmule, a characteristic appendage of this type of cell.
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fig18: (a) Depicts three-dimensional reconstructions, granule cell, olfactory bulb, one-month-old dog, Cajal histological preparation, Golgi-method. (b) Filopodia, protospines and spines; 1–10: inner dendrites (above the soma); 11–15: peripheral dendrites (below the soma); 16–20: peripheral apical tuft. (c) Filopodia, protospines and spines of the peripheral apical tuft. Filopodia and protospines are color coded in green. The arrow in (b) 18 points to a very big head with long neck possibly a gemmule, a characteristic appendage of this type of cell.

Mentions: We have found long appendages similar to the protospines, with one or more heads and morphological characteristics between dendritic spines and filopodia, in Cajal's histological slides (Figures 10(c), 13(d), 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, and 19). Interestingly, de novo synthesis of GFP-tagged PSD-95 may occur in filopodia (Figure 6(d)) that sometimes develop shapes similar to those we have seen in Cajal's histological slides, exhibiting characteristics of both dendritic spines and filopodia [19].


Dendritic spines and development: towards a unifying model of spinogenesis--a present day review of Cajal's histological slides and drawings.

García-López P, García-Marín V, Freire M - Neural Plast. (2011)

(a) Depicts three-dimensional reconstructions, granule cell, olfactory bulb, one-month-old dog, Cajal histological preparation, Golgi-method. (b) Filopodia, protospines and spines; 1–10: inner dendrites (above the soma); 11–15: peripheral dendrites (below the soma); 16–20: peripheral apical tuft. (c) Filopodia, protospines and spines of the peripheral apical tuft. Filopodia and protospines are color coded in green. The arrow in (b) 18 points to a very big head with long neck possibly a gemmule, a characteristic appendage of this type of cell.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3091278&req=5

fig18: (a) Depicts three-dimensional reconstructions, granule cell, olfactory bulb, one-month-old dog, Cajal histological preparation, Golgi-method. (b) Filopodia, protospines and spines; 1–10: inner dendrites (above the soma); 11–15: peripheral dendrites (below the soma); 16–20: peripheral apical tuft. (c) Filopodia, protospines and spines of the peripheral apical tuft. Filopodia and protospines are color coded in green. The arrow in (b) 18 points to a very big head with long neck possibly a gemmule, a characteristic appendage of this type of cell.
Mentions: We have found long appendages similar to the protospines, with one or more heads and morphological characteristics between dendritic spines and filopodia, in Cajal's histological slides (Figures 10(c), 13(d), 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, and 19). Interestingly, de novo synthesis of GFP-tagged PSD-95 may occur in filopodia (Figure 6(d)) that sometimes develop shapes similar to those we have seen in Cajal's histological slides, exhibiting characteristics of both dendritic spines and filopodia [19].

Bottom Line: Hence, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying their generation and plasticity, both during development and in adulthood, are a matter of fundamental and practical interest.Indeed, a better understanding of these mechanisms should provide clues to the development of novel clinical therapies.Based on the data available in the literature regarding the formation of dendritic spines during development and our results, we propose a unifying model for dendritic spine development.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Neurobiology, Instituto Cajal, CSIC, Avenida Doctor Arce 37, 28002 Madrid, Spain.

ABSTRACT
Dendritic spines receive the majority of excitatory connections in the central nervous system, and, thus, they are key structures in the regulation of neural activity. Hence, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying their generation and plasticity, both during development and in adulthood, are a matter of fundamental and practical interest. Indeed, a better understanding of these mechanisms should provide clues to the development of novel clinical therapies. Here, we present original results obtained from high-quality images of Cajal's histological preparations, stored at the Cajal Museum (Instituto Cajal, CSIC), obtained using extended focus imaging, three-dimensional reconstruction, and rendering. Based on the data available in the literature regarding the formation of dendritic spines during development and our results, we propose a unifying model for dendritic spine development.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus