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The immunopathology of canine vector-borne diseases.

Day MJ - Parasit Vectors (2011)

Bottom Line: The canine vector-borne infectious diseases (CVBDs) are an emerging problem in veterinary medicine and the zoonotic potential of many of these agents is a significant consideration for human health.The successful diagnosis, treatment and prevention of these infections is dependent upon firm understanding of the underlying immunopathology of the diseases in which there are unique tripartite interactions between the microorganism, the vector and the host immune system.The ultimate application of such immunological investigation is the development of effective vaccines.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Veterinary Sciences, University of Bristol, Langford BS40 5DU, UK. m.j.day@bristol.ac.uk

ABSTRACT
The canine vector-borne infectious diseases (CVBDs) are an emerging problem in veterinary medicine and the zoonotic potential of many of these agents is a significant consideration for human health. The successful diagnosis, treatment and prevention of these infections is dependent upon firm understanding of the underlying immunopathology of the diseases in which there are unique tripartite interactions between the microorganism, the vector and the host immune system. Although significant advances have been made in the areas of molecular speciation and the epidemiology of these infections and their vectors, basic knowledge of the pathology and immunology of the diseases has lagged behind. This review summarizes recent studies of the pathology and host immune response in the major CVBDs (leishmaniosis, babesiosis, ehrlichiosis, hepatozoonosis, anaplasmosis, bartonellosis and borreliosis). The ultimate application of such immunological investigation is the development of effective vaccines. The current commercially available vaccines for canine leishmaniosis, babesiosis and borreliosis are reviewed.

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Canine leishmaniosis. Section of kidney from a dog with visceral leishmaniosis. There is marked lymphoplasmacytic interstitial nephritis with obliteration of the glomerulus and afferent and efferent arterioles by granulomatous inflammatory infiltration. Haematoxylin and eosin, bar = 100 μm.
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Figure 4: Canine leishmaniosis. Section of kidney from a dog with visceral leishmaniosis. There is marked lymphoplasmacytic interstitial nephritis with obliteration of the glomerulus and afferent and efferent arterioles by granulomatous inflammatory infiltration. Haematoxylin and eosin, bar = 100 μm.

Mentions: Limited investigations have been performed on the systemic pathological changes that accompany these diseases in spontaneously- or experimentally-infected dogs. Again, the most reported are the lesions that develop in canine leishmaniosis [19], for example the granulomatous inflammatory infiltrates that form with foci of infection in organs such as the liver [20] (Figure 3), and the range of secondary immunopathological (e.g. immune complex-mediated) lesions that arise in the renal glomeruli [21-23] (Figure 4), the nasal mucosa [24] or the uveal tract of the eye [25,26]. Immunohistochemistry has been used in several studies to determine the parasite load of infected tissues [27].


The immunopathology of canine vector-borne diseases.

Day MJ - Parasit Vectors (2011)

Canine leishmaniosis. Section of kidney from a dog with visceral leishmaniosis. There is marked lymphoplasmacytic interstitial nephritis with obliteration of the glomerulus and afferent and efferent arterioles by granulomatous inflammatory infiltration. Haematoxylin and eosin, bar = 100 μm.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3090743&req=5

Figure 4: Canine leishmaniosis. Section of kidney from a dog with visceral leishmaniosis. There is marked lymphoplasmacytic interstitial nephritis with obliteration of the glomerulus and afferent and efferent arterioles by granulomatous inflammatory infiltration. Haematoxylin and eosin, bar = 100 μm.
Mentions: Limited investigations have been performed on the systemic pathological changes that accompany these diseases in spontaneously- or experimentally-infected dogs. Again, the most reported are the lesions that develop in canine leishmaniosis [19], for example the granulomatous inflammatory infiltrates that form with foci of infection in organs such as the liver [20] (Figure 3), and the range of secondary immunopathological (e.g. immune complex-mediated) lesions that arise in the renal glomeruli [21-23] (Figure 4), the nasal mucosa [24] or the uveal tract of the eye [25,26]. Immunohistochemistry has been used in several studies to determine the parasite load of infected tissues [27].

Bottom Line: The canine vector-borne infectious diseases (CVBDs) are an emerging problem in veterinary medicine and the zoonotic potential of many of these agents is a significant consideration for human health.The successful diagnosis, treatment and prevention of these infections is dependent upon firm understanding of the underlying immunopathology of the diseases in which there are unique tripartite interactions between the microorganism, the vector and the host immune system.The ultimate application of such immunological investigation is the development of effective vaccines.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Veterinary Sciences, University of Bristol, Langford BS40 5DU, UK. m.j.day@bristol.ac.uk

ABSTRACT
The canine vector-borne infectious diseases (CVBDs) are an emerging problem in veterinary medicine and the zoonotic potential of many of these agents is a significant consideration for human health. The successful diagnosis, treatment and prevention of these infections is dependent upon firm understanding of the underlying immunopathology of the diseases in which there are unique tripartite interactions between the microorganism, the vector and the host immune system. Although significant advances have been made in the areas of molecular speciation and the epidemiology of these infections and their vectors, basic knowledge of the pathology and immunology of the diseases has lagged behind. This review summarizes recent studies of the pathology and host immune response in the major CVBDs (leishmaniosis, babesiosis, ehrlichiosis, hepatozoonosis, anaplasmosis, bartonellosis and borreliosis). The ultimate application of such immunological investigation is the development of effective vaccines. The current commercially available vaccines for canine leishmaniosis, babesiosis and borreliosis are reviewed.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus