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A prebiotic, Celmanax™, decreases Escherichia coli O157:H7 colonization of bovine cells and feed-associated cytotoxicity in vitro.

Baines D, Erb S, Lowe R, Turkington K, Sabau E, Kuldau G, Juba J, Masson L, Mazza A, Roberts R - BMC Res Notes (2011)

Bottom Line: There was no effect of Dairyman's Choice™ paste on feed-extract activity in vitro.There was no effect of Dairyman's Choice™ paste on E. coli O157:H7 colonization in vitro.The inclusion of the prebiotic and probiotic in the feed was associated with a decline in disease.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Lethbridge Research Centre, 5403 1 Avenue South, P,O, Box 3000, Lethbridge, AB, T1J 4B1, Canada. danica.baines@agr.gc.ca.

ABSTRACT

Background: Escherichia coli O157:H7 is the most common serovar of enterohemorrhagic E. coli associated with serious human disease outbreaks. Cattle are the main reservoir with E. coli O157:H7 inducing hemorrhagic enteritis in persistent shedding beef cattle, however little is known about how this pathogen affects cattle health. Jejunal Hemorrhage Syndrome (JHS) has unclear etiology but the pathology is similar to that described for E. coli O157:H7 challenged beef cattle suggestive that E. coli O157:H7 could be involved. There are no effective treatments for JHS however new approaches to managing pathogen issues in livestock using prebiotics and probiotics are gaining support. The first objective of the current study was to characterize pathogen colonization in hemorrhaged jejunum of dairy cattle during natural JHS outbreaks. The second objective was to confirm the association of mycotoxigenic fungi in feeds with the development of JHS and also to identify the presence of potential mycotoxins. The third objective was to determine the impact of a prebiotic, Celmanax™, or probiotic, Dairyman's Choice™ paste, on the cytotoxicity associated with feed extracts in vitro. The fourth objective was to determine the impact of a prebiotic or a probiotic on E. coli O157:H7 colonization of mucosal explants and a bovine colonic cell line in vitro. The final objective was to determine if prebiotic and probiotic feed additives could modify the symptoms that preceded JHS losses and the development of new JHS cases.

Findings: Dairy cattle developed JHS after consuming feed containing several types of mycotoxigenic fungi including Fusarium culmorum, F. poae, F. verticillioides, F. sporotrichioides, Aspergillusflavus, Penicillium roqueforti, P. crustosum, P. paneum and P. citrinum. Mixtures of Shiga toxin - producing Escherichia coli (STEC) colonized the mucosa in the hemorrhaged tissues of the cattle and no other pathogen was identified. The STECs expressed Stx1 and Stx2, but more significantly, Stxs were also present in the blood clot blocking the jejunum. Mycotoxin analysis of the corn crop confirmed the presence of fumonisin, NIV, ZEAR, DON, 15-ADON, 3-ADON, NEO, DAS, HT-2 and T-2. Feed extracts were toxic to enterocytes and 0.1% Celmanax™ removed the cytotoxicity in vitro. There was no effect of Dairyman's Choice™ paste on feed-extract activity in vitro. Fumonisin, T-2, ZEAR and DON were toxic to bovine cells and 0.1% Celmanax™ removed the cytotoxicity in vitro. Celmanax™ also directly decreased E. coli O157:H7 colonization of mucosal explants and a colonic cell line in a dose-dependent manner. There was no effect of Dairyman's Choice™ paste on E. coli O157:H7 colonization in vitro. The inclusion of the prebiotic and probiotic in the feed was associated with a decline in disease.

Conclusion: The current study confirmed an association between mycotoxigenic fungi in the feed and the development of JHS in cattle. This association was further expanded to include mycotoxins in the feed and mixtures of STECs colonizing the severely hemorrhaged tissues. Future studies should examine the extent of involvement of the different STEC in the infection process. The prebiotic, Celmanax™, acted as an anti-adhesive for STEC colonization and a mycotoxin binder in vitro. Future studies should determine the extent of involvement of the prebiotic in altering disease.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The impact of varying concentrations of Celmanax™ on Escherichia coli O157:H7 E318N colonization of a colonic cell line (n = 6-8). A confluent monolayer of a bovine colonic cell line (105 cells) was exposed to 105 CFU (*, P = 0.05; ***, P = 0.001).
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Figure 2: The impact of varying concentrations of Celmanax™ on Escherichia coli O157:H7 E318N colonization of a colonic cell line (n = 6-8). A confluent monolayer of a bovine colonic cell line (105 cells) was exposed to 105 CFU (*, P = 0.05; ***, P = 0.001).

Mentions: The Dairyman's Choice™ paste had no effect on E. coli O157:H7 colonization of the bovine colonic cell line in vitro (data not shown). There was a significant dose-dependent reduction in E. coli O157:H7 colonization of the bovine colonic cell line in response to varying concentrations of Celmanax™ (P = 0.001, Figure 2). There was a significant passage effect (p = 0.001) with no passage/treatment interaction suggesting that Celmanax™ affected pathogen colonization regardless of passage number. The threshold dose for the reduction in E. coli O157:H7 colonization of the colonic cell line was 0.01% Celmanax™ when compared with the control (P = 0.05, Figure 2). This resulted in about a 1.6-fold reduction in colonization per 105cells. Thereafter, there was a continued decline in E. coli O157:H7 colonization with a maximum effect at 0.1% Celmanax™ when compared to the control (P = 0.001, Figure 2). This resulted in a 2.5-fold reduction in colonization per 105 cells. Higher doses could not be evaluated as they shifted the pH to favor acidic conditions. Overall, the colonic cell line provided similar E. coli O157:H7 colonization responses to the inclusion of the prebiotic, but at a lower sensitivity when compared with the IVOC bioassay.


A prebiotic, Celmanax™, decreases Escherichia coli O157:H7 colonization of bovine cells and feed-associated cytotoxicity in vitro.

Baines D, Erb S, Lowe R, Turkington K, Sabau E, Kuldau G, Juba J, Masson L, Mazza A, Roberts R - BMC Res Notes (2011)

The impact of varying concentrations of Celmanax™ on Escherichia coli O157:H7 E318N colonization of a colonic cell line (n = 6-8). A confluent monolayer of a bovine colonic cell line (105 cells) was exposed to 105 CFU (*, P = 0.05; ***, P = 0.001).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3090735&req=5

Figure 2: The impact of varying concentrations of Celmanax™ on Escherichia coli O157:H7 E318N colonization of a colonic cell line (n = 6-8). A confluent monolayer of a bovine colonic cell line (105 cells) was exposed to 105 CFU (*, P = 0.05; ***, P = 0.001).
Mentions: The Dairyman's Choice™ paste had no effect on E. coli O157:H7 colonization of the bovine colonic cell line in vitro (data not shown). There was a significant dose-dependent reduction in E. coli O157:H7 colonization of the bovine colonic cell line in response to varying concentrations of Celmanax™ (P = 0.001, Figure 2). There was a significant passage effect (p = 0.001) with no passage/treatment interaction suggesting that Celmanax™ affected pathogen colonization regardless of passage number. The threshold dose for the reduction in E. coli O157:H7 colonization of the colonic cell line was 0.01% Celmanax™ when compared with the control (P = 0.05, Figure 2). This resulted in about a 1.6-fold reduction in colonization per 105cells. Thereafter, there was a continued decline in E. coli O157:H7 colonization with a maximum effect at 0.1% Celmanax™ when compared to the control (P = 0.001, Figure 2). This resulted in a 2.5-fold reduction in colonization per 105 cells. Higher doses could not be evaluated as they shifted the pH to favor acidic conditions. Overall, the colonic cell line provided similar E. coli O157:H7 colonization responses to the inclusion of the prebiotic, but at a lower sensitivity when compared with the IVOC bioassay.

Bottom Line: There was no effect of Dairyman's Choice™ paste on feed-extract activity in vitro.There was no effect of Dairyman's Choice™ paste on E. coli O157:H7 colonization in vitro.The inclusion of the prebiotic and probiotic in the feed was associated with a decline in disease.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Lethbridge Research Centre, 5403 1 Avenue South, P,O, Box 3000, Lethbridge, AB, T1J 4B1, Canada. danica.baines@agr.gc.ca.

ABSTRACT

Background: Escherichia coli O157:H7 is the most common serovar of enterohemorrhagic E. coli associated with serious human disease outbreaks. Cattle are the main reservoir with E. coli O157:H7 inducing hemorrhagic enteritis in persistent shedding beef cattle, however little is known about how this pathogen affects cattle health. Jejunal Hemorrhage Syndrome (JHS) has unclear etiology but the pathology is similar to that described for E. coli O157:H7 challenged beef cattle suggestive that E. coli O157:H7 could be involved. There are no effective treatments for JHS however new approaches to managing pathogen issues in livestock using prebiotics and probiotics are gaining support. The first objective of the current study was to characterize pathogen colonization in hemorrhaged jejunum of dairy cattle during natural JHS outbreaks. The second objective was to confirm the association of mycotoxigenic fungi in feeds with the development of JHS and also to identify the presence of potential mycotoxins. The third objective was to determine the impact of a prebiotic, Celmanax™, or probiotic, Dairyman's Choice™ paste, on the cytotoxicity associated with feed extracts in vitro. The fourth objective was to determine the impact of a prebiotic or a probiotic on E. coli O157:H7 colonization of mucosal explants and a bovine colonic cell line in vitro. The final objective was to determine if prebiotic and probiotic feed additives could modify the symptoms that preceded JHS losses and the development of new JHS cases.

Findings: Dairy cattle developed JHS after consuming feed containing several types of mycotoxigenic fungi including Fusarium culmorum, F. poae, F. verticillioides, F. sporotrichioides, Aspergillusflavus, Penicillium roqueforti, P. crustosum, P. paneum and P. citrinum. Mixtures of Shiga toxin - producing Escherichia coli (STEC) colonized the mucosa in the hemorrhaged tissues of the cattle and no other pathogen was identified. The STECs expressed Stx1 and Stx2, but more significantly, Stxs were also present in the blood clot blocking the jejunum. Mycotoxin analysis of the corn crop confirmed the presence of fumonisin, NIV, ZEAR, DON, 15-ADON, 3-ADON, NEO, DAS, HT-2 and T-2. Feed extracts were toxic to enterocytes and 0.1% Celmanax™ removed the cytotoxicity in vitro. There was no effect of Dairyman's Choice™ paste on feed-extract activity in vitro. Fumonisin, T-2, ZEAR and DON were toxic to bovine cells and 0.1% Celmanax™ removed the cytotoxicity in vitro. Celmanax™ also directly decreased E. coli O157:H7 colonization of mucosal explants and a colonic cell line in a dose-dependent manner. There was no effect of Dairyman's Choice™ paste on E. coli O157:H7 colonization in vitro. The inclusion of the prebiotic and probiotic in the feed was associated with a decline in disease.

Conclusion: The current study confirmed an association between mycotoxigenic fungi in the feed and the development of JHS in cattle. This association was further expanded to include mycotoxins in the feed and mixtures of STECs colonizing the severely hemorrhaged tissues. Future studies should examine the extent of involvement of the different STEC in the infection process. The prebiotic, Celmanax™, acted as an anti-adhesive for STEC colonization and a mycotoxin binder in vitro. Future studies should determine the extent of involvement of the prebiotic in altering disease.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus