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Testicular microlithiasis: prevalence and clinical significance in a population referred for scrotal ultrasonography.

Yee WS, Kim YS, Kim SJ, Choi JB, Kim SI, Ahn HS - Korean J Urol (2011)

Bottom Line: The prevalence of TM in symptomatic men was found to be 6.0% with significant co-occurrence of TM, testicular cancer, and infertility.Further grading of TM does not seem to be essential with regard to the detection of patients with testicular cancer and TM.TM showed no significant effect on the seminal profiles of infertile men.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Urology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Korea.

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Testicular microlithiasis (TM) is an uncommon pathologic condition that is commonly diagnosed by scrotal ultrasonography. Indirect evidence suggests that this syndrome may be associated with an increased risk of testicular malignancy and infertility.

Materials and methods: A total of 1,439 patients undergoing scrotal ultrasound during a 6-year, 5-month period (January 2003 to May 2009) were retrospectively reviewed. Any possible association of TM with pathologic findings was assessed. Among patients with TM, further grading of TM with testicular cancer and semen analysis of the infertile group with TM were also performed.

Results: TM was diagnosed in 87 patients (6.0%) out of a total of 1,439. Of all established pathologic entities, only testicular malignancy and infertility were meaningfully associated with TM. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of testicular cancer between each grade. Seminal profiles (sperm count, motility, morphology, and white blood cell count) were not found to be statistically different between infertile men with and without TM.

Conclusions: The prevalence of TM in symptomatic men was found to be 6.0% with significant co-occurrence of TM, testicular cancer, and infertility. Further grading of TM does not seem to be essential with regard to the detection of patients with testicular cancer and TM. TM showed no significant effect on the seminal profiles of infertile men.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Ultrasonographic image of testicular microlithiasis: grade 2.
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Figure 3: Ultrasonographic image of testicular microlithiasis: grade 2.

Mentions: All patients (n=1,439) undergoing scrotal US during a 6-year, 5-month period (January 2003 to May 2009) were included. Scrotal ultrasonography was done in longitudinal and transverse sections by using a scanning device with a high-frequency linear array transducer and a center frequency of 14 MHz (SIEMENS ACUSON Sequoia 512 system, Germany). In patients without infertility, the indications for US were scrotal signs and symptoms such as palpable mass, pain, and swelling. All pathologic entities of patients who had undergone US were recorded. To identify possible associations with TM, analysis was performed by retrospective review of the medical records and US images. We defined TM as multiple (more than 2) calcifications smaller than 2 mm (no acoustic shadowing) inside the testicular parenchyma on US [3,4,10]. The presence of TM, the number of lesions, the involvement of both testicles in relation to symptoms, and the coexistence of other lesions were studied. Patients with TM were divided as follows: 3 or 4 microliths=limited (Fig. 1); 5-10 microliths=grade 1 (Fig. 2); 11-20 microliths=grade 2 (Fig. 3); and >20 microliths=grade 3 (Fig. 4) [11,12]. Solitary and two microcalculi or multiple coarse calcifications were not included in the analysis. We also recorded laterality of TM in addition to grade. In cases of testicular cancer accompanying TM, specific tumor types were pathologically confirmed.


Testicular microlithiasis: prevalence and clinical significance in a population referred for scrotal ultrasonography.

Yee WS, Kim YS, Kim SJ, Choi JB, Kim SI, Ahn HS - Korean J Urol (2011)

Ultrasonographic image of testicular microlithiasis: grade 2.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3065128&req=5

Figure 3: Ultrasonographic image of testicular microlithiasis: grade 2.
Mentions: All patients (n=1,439) undergoing scrotal US during a 6-year, 5-month period (January 2003 to May 2009) were included. Scrotal ultrasonography was done in longitudinal and transverse sections by using a scanning device with a high-frequency linear array transducer and a center frequency of 14 MHz (SIEMENS ACUSON Sequoia 512 system, Germany). In patients without infertility, the indications for US were scrotal signs and symptoms such as palpable mass, pain, and swelling. All pathologic entities of patients who had undergone US were recorded. To identify possible associations with TM, analysis was performed by retrospective review of the medical records and US images. We defined TM as multiple (more than 2) calcifications smaller than 2 mm (no acoustic shadowing) inside the testicular parenchyma on US [3,4,10]. The presence of TM, the number of lesions, the involvement of both testicles in relation to symptoms, and the coexistence of other lesions were studied. Patients with TM were divided as follows: 3 or 4 microliths=limited (Fig. 1); 5-10 microliths=grade 1 (Fig. 2); 11-20 microliths=grade 2 (Fig. 3); and >20 microliths=grade 3 (Fig. 4) [11,12]. Solitary and two microcalculi or multiple coarse calcifications were not included in the analysis. We also recorded laterality of TM in addition to grade. In cases of testicular cancer accompanying TM, specific tumor types were pathologically confirmed.

Bottom Line: The prevalence of TM in symptomatic men was found to be 6.0% with significant co-occurrence of TM, testicular cancer, and infertility.Further grading of TM does not seem to be essential with regard to the detection of patients with testicular cancer and TM.TM showed no significant effect on the seminal profiles of infertile men.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Urology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Korea.

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Testicular microlithiasis (TM) is an uncommon pathologic condition that is commonly diagnosed by scrotal ultrasonography. Indirect evidence suggests that this syndrome may be associated with an increased risk of testicular malignancy and infertility.

Materials and methods: A total of 1,439 patients undergoing scrotal ultrasound during a 6-year, 5-month period (January 2003 to May 2009) were retrospectively reviewed. Any possible association of TM with pathologic findings was assessed. Among patients with TM, further grading of TM with testicular cancer and semen analysis of the infertile group with TM were also performed.

Results: TM was diagnosed in 87 patients (6.0%) out of a total of 1,439. Of all established pathologic entities, only testicular malignancy and infertility were meaningfully associated with TM. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of testicular cancer between each grade. Seminal profiles (sperm count, motility, morphology, and white blood cell count) were not found to be statistically different between infertile men with and without TM.

Conclusions: The prevalence of TM in symptomatic men was found to be 6.0% with significant co-occurrence of TM, testicular cancer, and infertility. Further grading of TM does not seem to be essential with regard to the detection of patients with testicular cancer and TM. TM showed no significant effect on the seminal profiles of infertile men.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus