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Determination of Chlorinity of Water without the Use of Chromate Indicator.

Hong TK, Kim MH, Czae MZ - Int J Anal Chem (2011)

Bottom Line: A combination of phosphate (a mediator) and phenolphthalein (an indicator) was found to be the most successful.The method was applied to a sample of sea water, and the results are compared with those from the conventional Mohr-Knudsen method.The new method yielded chlorinity of a sample of sea water of (17.58 ± 0.22) g/kg, which is about 2.5% higher than the value (17.12 ± 0.22) g/kg from the old method.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, Hanseo University, Seosan, Choongnam 139-743, Republic of Korea.

ABSTRACT
A new method for determining chlorinity of water was developed in order to improve the old method by alleviating the environmental problems associated with the toxic chromate. The method utilizes a mediator, a weak acid that can form an insoluble salt with the titrant. The mediator triggers a sudden change in pH at an equivalence point in a titration. Thus, the equivalence point can be determined either potentiometrically (using a pH meter) or simply with an acid-base indicator. Three nontoxic mediators (phosphate, EDTA, and sulfite) were tested, and optimal conditions for the sharpest pH changes were sought. A combination of phosphate (a mediator) and phenolphthalein (an indicator) was found to be the most successful. The choices of the initial pH and the concentration of the mediator are critical in this approach. The optimum concentration of the mediator is ca. 1~2 mM, and the optimum value of the initial pH is ca. 9 for phosphate/phenolphthalein system. The method was applied to a sample of sea water, and the results are compared with those from the conventional Mohr-Knudsen method. The new method yielded chlorinity of a sample of sea water of (17.58 ± 0.22) g/kg, which is about 2.5% higher than the value (17.12 ± 0.22) g/kg from the old method.

No MeSH data available.


Titration curves of 40.0 mL of 0.1 M NaCl with a 0.1 M AgNO3 solution in the presence of 2.5 mM  Na2HPO4 at two different initial pH values: (a) 8.32 (■) and (b) 7.03 (○).
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fig4: Titration curves of 40.0 mL of 0.1 M NaCl with a 0.1 M AgNO3 solution in the presence of 2.5 mM Na2HPO4 at two different initial pH values: (a) 8.32 (■) and (b) 7.03 (○).

Mentions: All the previous experiments were performed as rather crude qualitative pilot runs using 0.50 M AgNO3. However, the following titrations (Figures 3 and 4) are aimed at obtaining more accurate quantitative results by using 0.10 M AgNO3 instead of 0.50 M AgNO3, and by increasing volumes of titrand (Cl−) from 25.0 mL to 40.0 mL. Typical titration curves of 40.0 mL of 0.1 M NaCl with a 0.1 M AgNO3 solution in the presence of NaHSO3 (the mediator) are presented in Figure 3(a) at two different concentrations of bisulfite: (a) 0.50 mM (■, initial pH of 8.2) and (b) 5.0 mM (○, initial pH of 6.67).


Determination of Chlorinity of Water without the Use of Chromate Indicator.

Hong TK, Kim MH, Czae MZ - Int J Anal Chem (2011)

Titration curves of 40.0 mL of 0.1 M NaCl with a 0.1 M AgNO3 solution in the presence of 2.5 mM  Na2HPO4 at two different initial pH values: (a) 8.32 (■) and (b) 7.03 (○).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3065052&req=5

fig4: Titration curves of 40.0 mL of 0.1 M NaCl with a 0.1 M AgNO3 solution in the presence of 2.5 mM Na2HPO4 at two different initial pH values: (a) 8.32 (■) and (b) 7.03 (○).
Mentions: All the previous experiments were performed as rather crude qualitative pilot runs using 0.50 M AgNO3. However, the following titrations (Figures 3 and 4) are aimed at obtaining more accurate quantitative results by using 0.10 M AgNO3 instead of 0.50 M AgNO3, and by increasing volumes of titrand (Cl−) from 25.0 mL to 40.0 mL. Typical titration curves of 40.0 mL of 0.1 M NaCl with a 0.1 M AgNO3 solution in the presence of NaHSO3 (the mediator) are presented in Figure 3(a) at two different concentrations of bisulfite: (a) 0.50 mM (■, initial pH of 8.2) and (b) 5.0 mM (○, initial pH of 6.67).

Bottom Line: A combination of phosphate (a mediator) and phenolphthalein (an indicator) was found to be the most successful.The method was applied to a sample of sea water, and the results are compared with those from the conventional Mohr-Knudsen method.The new method yielded chlorinity of a sample of sea water of (17.58 ± 0.22) g/kg, which is about 2.5% higher than the value (17.12 ± 0.22) g/kg from the old method.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, Hanseo University, Seosan, Choongnam 139-743, Republic of Korea.

ABSTRACT
A new method for determining chlorinity of water was developed in order to improve the old method by alleviating the environmental problems associated with the toxic chromate. The method utilizes a mediator, a weak acid that can form an insoluble salt with the titrant. The mediator triggers a sudden change in pH at an equivalence point in a titration. Thus, the equivalence point can be determined either potentiometrically (using a pH meter) or simply with an acid-base indicator. Three nontoxic mediators (phosphate, EDTA, and sulfite) were tested, and optimal conditions for the sharpest pH changes were sought. A combination of phosphate (a mediator) and phenolphthalein (an indicator) was found to be the most successful. The choices of the initial pH and the concentration of the mediator are critical in this approach. The optimum concentration of the mediator is ca. 1~2 mM, and the optimum value of the initial pH is ca. 9 for phosphate/phenolphthalein system. The method was applied to a sample of sea water, and the results are compared with those from the conventional Mohr-Knudsen method. The new method yielded chlorinity of a sample of sea water of (17.58 ± 0.22) g/kg, which is about 2.5% higher than the value (17.12 ± 0.22) g/kg from the old method.

No MeSH data available.