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Genomic revelations of a mutualism: the pea aphid and its obligate bacterial symbiont.

Shigenobu S, Wilson AC - Cell. Mol. Life Sci. (2011)

Bottom Line: Here we present a refined picture of this symbiosis by linking pre-genomic observations to new genomic data that includes the complete genomes of the eukaryotic and prokaryotic symbiotic partners.In doing so, we address four issues central to understanding the patterns and processes operating at the A. pisum/Buchnera APS interface.These four issues include: (1) lateral gene transfer, (2) host immunity, (3) symbiotic metabolism, and (4) regulation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: NIBB Core Research Facilities, National Institute for Basic Biology, Myodaiji, Okazaki, Japan. shige@nibb.ac.jp

ABSTRACT
The symbiosis of the pea aphid Acyrthosphion pisum with the bacterium Buchnera aphidicola APS represents the best-studied insect obligate symbiosis. Here we present a refined picture of this symbiosis by linking pre-genomic observations to new genomic data that includes the complete genomes of the eukaryotic and prokaryotic symbiotic partners. In doing so, we address four issues central to understanding the patterns and processes operating at the A. pisum/Buchnera APS interface. These four issues include: (1) lateral gene transfer, (2) host immunity, (3) symbiotic metabolism, and (4) regulation.

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DNA-stained confocal microscope images of aphid embryos. a Incorporation of the maternal endosymbiotic bacteria to a stage 7 embryo. The bacteria are visible as small round cells. Anterior is to top. Scale bar 14 μm. b Aggregates of large aphid bacteriocyte cells that run perpendicular to the main axis of a stage 16 embryo are clearly visible (Ba). Scale bar 50 μm. c Magnified view of aphid bacteriocyte cells showing the large polyploid bacteriocyte cell nucleus (N) and a high density of Buchnera within the cell. Scale bar 6 μm. d Cartoon of the aphid bacteriocyte. The two aphid-derived membranes are shown in green, and the Buchnera cell membrane is shown in blue (drawn to scale from Fig. 1 of Baumann et al. [5]). Scale bar 2 μm. Parthenogenetic viviparous embryos were stained with TO-PRO3 (a) or DAPI (b, c). Composite figure and cartoon courtesy of Daniel R. G. Price. Confocal microscopy images: Shuji Shigenobu (a), James Baker (b, c)
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Fig1: DNA-stained confocal microscope images of aphid embryos. a Incorporation of the maternal endosymbiotic bacteria to a stage 7 embryo. The bacteria are visible as small round cells. Anterior is to top. Scale bar 14 μm. b Aggregates of large aphid bacteriocyte cells that run perpendicular to the main axis of a stage 16 embryo are clearly visible (Ba). Scale bar 50 μm. c Magnified view of aphid bacteriocyte cells showing the large polyploid bacteriocyte cell nucleus (N) and a high density of Buchnera within the cell. Scale bar 6 μm. d Cartoon of the aphid bacteriocyte. The two aphid-derived membranes are shown in green, and the Buchnera cell membrane is shown in blue (drawn to scale from Fig. 1 of Baumann et al. [5]). Scale bar 2 μm. Parthenogenetic viviparous embryos were stained with TO-PRO3 (a) or DAPI (b, c). Composite figure and cartoon courtesy of Daniel R. G. Price. Confocal microscopy images: Shuji Shigenobu (a), James Baker (b, c)

Mentions: For most of the aphid lifecycle, Buchnera are restricted to huge polyploid aphid cells called bacteriocytes [25]. These cells are grouped into an organ-like structure called the mycetome, or bacteriome, which consists of two halves extending along the body and joining above the hindgut (Fig. 1b). Small, flattened cells called sheath cells form a thin casing around bacteriocytes [2]. The symbionts are passed directly from mother to offspring by transovarial transfer [2, 25] (Fig. 1a).Fig. 1


Genomic revelations of a mutualism: the pea aphid and its obligate bacterial symbiont.

Shigenobu S, Wilson AC - Cell. Mol. Life Sci. (2011)

DNA-stained confocal microscope images of aphid embryos. a Incorporation of the maternal endosymbiotic bacteria to a stage 7 embryo. The bacteria are visible as small round cells. Anterior is to top. Scale bar 14 μm. b Aggregates of large aphid bacteriocyte cells that run perpendicular to the main axis of a stage 16 embryo are clearly visible (Ba). Scale bar 50 μm. c Magnified view of aphid bacteriocyte cells showing the large polyploid bacteriocyte cell nucleus (N) and a high density of Buchnera within the cell. Scale bar 6 μm. d Cartoon of the aphid bacteriocyte. The two aphid-derived membranes are shown in green, and the Buchnera cell membrane is shown in blue (drawn to scale from Fig. 1 of Baumann et al. [5]). Scale bar 2 μm. Parthenogenetic viviparous embryos were stained with TO-PRO3 (a) or DAPI (b, c). Composite figure and cartoon courtesy of Daniel R. G. Price. Confocal microscopy images: Shuji Shigenobu (a), James Baker (b, c)
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Fig1: DNA-stained confocal microscope images of aphid embryos. a Incorporation of the maternal endosymbiotic bacteria to a stage 7 embryo. The bacteria are visible as small round cells. Anterior is to top. Scale bar 14 μm. b Aggregates of large aphid bacteriocyte cells that run perpendicular to the main axis of a stage 16 embryo are clearly visible (Ba). Scale bar 50 μm. c Magnified view of aphid bacteriocyte cells showing the large polyploid bacteriocyte cell nucleus (N) and a high density of Buchnera within the cell. Scale bar 6 μm. d Cartoon of the aphid bacteriocyte. The two aphid-derived membranes are shown in green, and the Buchnera cell membrane is shown in blue (drawn to scale from Fig. 1 of Baumann et al. [5]). Scale bar 2 μm. Parthenogenetic viviparous embryos were stained with TO-PRO3 (a) or DAPI (b, c). Composite figure and cartoon courtesy of Daniel R. G. Price. Confocal microscopy images: Shuji Shigenobu (a), James Baker (b, c)
Mentions: For most of the aphid lifecycle, Buchnera are restricted to huge polyploid aphid cells called bacteriocytes [25]. These cells are grouped into an organ-like structure called the mycetome, or bacteriome, which consists of two halves extending along the body and joining above the hindgut (Fig. 1b). Small, flattened cells called sheath cells form a thin casing around bacteriocytes [2]. The symbionts are passed directly from mother to offspring by transovarial transfer [2, 25] (Fig. 1a).Fig. 1

Bottom Line: Here we present a refined picture of this symbiosis by linking pre-genomic observations to new genomic data that includes the complete genomes of the eukaryotic and prokaryotic symbiotic partners.In doing so, we address four issues central to understanding the patterns and processes operating at the A. pisum/Buchnera APS interface.These four issues include: (1) lateral gene transfer, (2) host immunity, (3) symbiotic metabolism, and (4) regulation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: NIBB Core Research Facilities, National Institute for Basic Biology, Myodaiji, Okazaki, Japan. shige@nibb.ac.jp

ABSTRACT
The symbiosis of the pea aphid Acyrthosphion pisum with the bacterium Buchnera aphidicola APS represents the best-studied insect obligate symbiosis. Here we present a refined picture of this symbiosis by linking pre-genomic observations to new genomic data that includes the complete genomes of the eukaryotic and prokaryotic symbiotic partners. In doing so, we address four issues central to understanding the patterns and processes operating at the A. pisum/Buchnera APS interface. These four issues include: (1) lateral gene transfer, (2) host immunity, (3) symbiotic metabolism, and (4) regulation.

Show MeSH