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The road less traveled: regulation of leukocyte migration across vascular and lymphatic endothelium by galectins.

Thiemann S, Baum LG - J. Clin. Immunol. (2010)

Bottom Line: Leukocyte entry from the blood into inflamed tissues, exit into the lymphatics, and migration to regional lymph nodes are all crucial processes for mounting an effective adaptive immune response.Leukocytes must cross two endothelial cell layers, the vascular and the lymphatic endothelial cell layers, during the journey from the blood to the lymph node.Here, we will summarize evidence for a role for galectins, a family of carbohydrate-binding proteins, in regulating leukocyte migration across the vascular endothelium and propose that galectins are also involved in leukocyte migration across the lymphatic endothelium.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, UCLA School of Medicine, University of California, 10833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

ABSTRACT
Leukocyte entry from the blood into inflamed tissues, exit into the lymphatics, and migration to regional lymph nodes are all crucial processes for mounting an effective adaptive immune response. Leukocytes must cross two endothelial cell layers, the vascular and the lymphatic endothelial cell layers, during the journey from the blood to the lymph node. The proteins and cellular interactions which regulate leukocyte migration across the vascular endothelium are well studied; however, little is known about the factors that regulate leukocyte migration across the lymphatic endothelium. Here, we will summarize evidence for a role for galectins, a family of carbohydrate-binding proteins, in regulating leukocyte migration across the vascular endothelium and propose that galectins are also involved in leukocyte migration across the lymphatic endothelium.

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Galectin family members regulate leukocyte migration across vascular and lymphatic endothelium. Schematic representation of leukocyte entry from the blood vasculature into inflamed tissue and exit into the lymphatic system. Neutrophils (N), monocytes (M), monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC), and lymphocytes (L) are shown. Galectin-3 and galectin-9 support the migration of leukocytes from the blood into tissues under inflammatory conditions while this process is inhibited by galectin-1 (left panels). Leukocyte exit into the lymphatic vasculature is increased in the presence of galectin-1 and galectin-3, but any role for galectins in negatively regulating this process has not yet been examined (right panels)
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Fig1: Galectin family members regulate leukocyte migration across vascular and lymphatic endothelium. Schematic representation of leukocyte entry from the blood vasculature into inflamed tissue and exit into the lymphatic system. Neutrophils (N), monocytes (M), monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC), and lymphocytes (L) are shown. Galectin-3 and galectin-9 support the migration of leukocytes from the blood into tissues under inflammatory conditions while this process is inhibited by galectin-1 (left panels). Leukocyte exit into the lymphatic vasculature is increased in the presence of galectin-1 and galectin-3, but any role for galectins in negatively regulating this process has not yet been examined (right panels)

Mentions: Although the roles played by galectins in lymphatic endothelial cells are still elusive, it is well established that the dynamic expression of galectins in leukocytes and vascular endothelial cells controls inflammatory processes through modulating cell survival and death [23, 53], activation and cytokine secretion [9, 53, 54], and migration [4, 54, 55]. The ability to migrate to and from sites of inflammation is crucial for mounting a proper immune response. Galectins, in particular galectin-1, galectin-3, and galectin-9, have been shown to influence both cell entry into and cell exit from inflamed tissues (Table I and Fig. 1).Table I


The road less traveled: regulation of leukocyte migration across vascular and lymphatic endothelium by galectins.

Thiemann S, Baum LG - J. Clin. Immunol. (2010)

Galectin family members regulate leukocyte migration across vascular and lymphatic endothelium. Schematic representation of leukocyte entry from the blood vasculature into inflamed tissue and exit into the lymphatic system. Neutrophils (N), monocytes (M), monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC), and lymphocytes (L) are shown. Galectin-3 and galectin-9 support the migration of leukocytes from the blood into tissues under inflammatory conditions while this process is inhibited by galectin-1 (left panels). Leukocyte exit into the lymphatic vasculature is increased in the presence of galectin-1 and galectin-3, but any role for galectins in negatively regulating this process has not yet been examined (right panels)
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3064902&req=5

Fig1: Galectin family members regulate leukocyte migration across vascular and lymphatic endothelium. Schematic representation of leukocyte entry from the blood vasculature into inflamed tissue and exit into the lymphatic system. Neutrophils (N), monocytes (M), monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC), and lymphocytes (L) are shown. Galectin-3 and galectin-9 support the migration of leukocytes from the blood into tissues under inflammatory conditions while this process is inhibited by galectin-1 (left panels). Leukocyte exit into the lymphatic vasculature is increased in the presence of galectin-1 and galectin-3, but any role for galectins in negatively regulating this process has not yet been examined (right panels)
Mentions: Although the roles played by galectins in lymphatic endothelial cells are still elusive, it is well established that the dynamic expression of galectins in leukocytes and vascular endothelial cells controls inflammatory processes through modulating cell survival and death [23, 53], activation and cytokine secretion [9, 53, 54], and migration [4, 54, 55]. The ability to migrate to and from sites of inflammation is crucial for mounting a proper immune response. Galectins, in particular galectin-1, galectin-3, and galectin-9, have been shown to influence both cell entry into and cell exit from inflamed tissues (Table I and Fig. 1).Table I

Bottom Line: Leukocyte entry from the blood into inflamed tissues, exit into the lymphatics, and migration to regional lymph nodes are all crucial processes for mounting an effective adaptive immune response.Leukocytes must cross two endothelial cell layers, the vascular and the lymphatic endothelial cell layers, during the journey from the blood to the lymph node.Here, we will summarize evidence for a role for galectins, a family of carbohydrate-binding proteins, in regulating leukocyte migration across the vascular endothelium and propose that galectins are also involved in leukocyte migration across the lymphatic endothelium.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, UCLA School of Medicine, University of California, 10833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

ABSTRACT
Leukocyte entry from the blood into inflamed tissues, exit into the lymphatics, and migration to regional lymph nodes are all crucial processes for mounting an effective adaptive immune response. Leukocytes must cross two endothelial cell layers, the vascular and the lymphatic endothelial cell layers, during the journey from the blood to the lymph node. The proteins and cellular interactions which regulate leukocyte migration across the vascular endothelium are well studied; however, little is known about the factors that regulate leukocyte migration across the lymphatic endothelium. Here, we will summarize evidence for a role for galectins, a family of carbohydrate-binding proteins, in regulating leukocyte migration across the vascular endothelium and propose that galectins are also involved in leukocyte migration across the lymphatic endothelium.

Show MeSH