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International stem cell collaboration: how disparate policies between the United States and the United Kingdom impact research.

Luo J, Flynn JM, Solnick RE, Ecklund EH, Matthews KR - PLoS ONE (2011)

Bottom Line: Thus, studying international collaborations in stem cell research elucidates the role of existing international networks in promoting quality research, as well as the effects that disparate national policies might have on research.While this applied to UK authors whether they were corresponding or secondary, this effect was most significant for US authors who were corresponding authors.The findings suggested that national stem cell policy differences and regulatory mechanisms driving international stem cell research in the US and UK did not affect the frequency of international collaborations, or even the countries with which the US and UK most often collaborated.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Science and Technology Policy Program, James A. Baker III Institute for Public Policy, Rice University, Houston, Texas, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
As the scientific community globalizes, it is increasingly important to understand the effects of international collaboration on the quality and quantity of research produced. While it is generally assumed that international collaboration enhances the quality of research, this phenomenon is not well examined. Stem cell research is unique in that it is both politically charged and a research area that often generates international collaborations, making it an ideal case through which to examine international collaborations. Furthermore, with promising medical applications, the research area is dynamic and responsive to a globalizing science environment. Thus, studying international collaborations in stem cell research elucidates the role of existing international networks in promoting quality research, as well as the effects that disparate national policies might have on research. This study examined the impact of collaboration on publication significance in the United States and the United Kingdom, world leaders in stem cell research with disparate policies. We reviewed publications by US and UK authors from 2008, along with their citation rates and the political factors that may have contributed to the number of international collaborations. The data demonstrated that international collaborations significantly increased an article's impact for UK and US investigators. While this applied to UK authors whether they were corresponding or secondary, this effect was most significant for US authors who were corresponding authors. While the UK exhibited a higher proportion of international publications than the US, this difference was consistent with overall trends in international scientific collaboration. The findings suggested that national stem cell policy differences and regulatory mechanisms driving international stem cell research in the US and UK did not affect the frequency of international collaborations, or even the countries with which the US and UK most often collaborated. Geographical and traditional collaborative relationships were the predominate considerations in establishing international collaborations.

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Average number of citations for US and UK paper.US publications (blue) UK publications (red) were evaluated in four categories: overall citation rate (All); independent (Indep); international-corresponding (Intl-C); and international-secondary (Intl-S). Significant differences statistically were seen between: (A) US Indep vs. Intl-C, p<0.01; (b) US Intl-C vs Intl-S, p = 0.04; (C) UK Indep vs.Intl-C, p = 0.01; (D) UK Indep vs. Intl-S, p<0.01; and (E) US Indep vs. UK Indep, p<0.01.
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pone-0017684-g004: Average number of citations for US and UK paper.US publications (blue) UK publications (red) were evaluated in four categories: overall citation rate (All); independent (Indep); international-corresponding (Intl-C); and international-secondary (Intl-S). Significant differences statistically were seen between: (A) US Indep vs. Intl-C, p<0.01; (b) US Intl-C vs Intl-S, p = 0.04; (C) UK Indep vs.Intl-C, p = 0.01; (D) UK Indep vs. Intl-S, p<0.01; and (E) US Indep vs. UK Indep, p<0.01.

Mentions: Overall citations from the US papers were slightly higher than UK papers, (15.9 versus 13.6), but the results were not statistically significant. Reviewing data for each country, citation rates for UK articles were significantly higher when the paper was the result of an international collaboration rather than independently produced by the UK. UK-independent articles averaged 10.1 citations while articles listing a UK scientist as the international-corresponding or an international-secondary author averaged 13.8 (p = 0.01) and 18.4 citations (p<0.01), respectively (Figure 4). The increased citation rate of articles by US scientists collaborating with international co-authors was slightly less dramatic, but still statistically significant (p<0.01 for papers on which the US was the corresponding author versus US independent papers). US-independent articles averaged 15.0 citations, and publications listing a US scientist as the international-corresponding and international-secondary author averaged 20.3 and 15.3 citations, respectively. While the citation rate was slightly increased for international papers on which a US scientist was a secondary author, this difference was not found to be statistically significant, indicating that it is not as beneficial for US authors to be secondary contributors. These figures suggest that scientists in both the UK and US produce higher-impact stem cell research when collaborating with foreign counterparts. But US scientists find a more dramatic increase in citation rates when they are corresponding authors and the UK scientists had the highest rate for articles as secondary authors.


International stem cell collaboration: how disparate policies between the United States and the United Kingdom impact research.

Luo J, Flynn JM, Solnick RE, Ecklund EH, Matthews KR - PLoS ONE (2011)

Average number of citations for US and UK paper.US publications (blue) UK publications (red) were evaluated in four categories: overall citation rate (All); independent (Indep); international-corresponding (Intl-C); and international-secondary (Intl-S). Significant differences statistically were seen between: (A) US Indep vs. Intl-C, p<0.01; (b) US Intl-C vs Intl-S, p = 0.04; (C) UK Indep vs.Intl-C, p = 0.01; (D) UK Indep vs. Intl-S, p<0.01; and (E) US Indep vs. UK Indep, p<0.01.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3050923&req=5

pone-0017684-g004: Average number of citations for US and UK paper.US publications (blue) UK publications (red) were evaluated in four categories: overall citation rate (All); independent (Indep); international-corresponding (Intl-C); and international-secondary (Intl-S). Significant differences statistically were seen between: (A) US Indep vs. Intl-C, p<0.01; (b) US Intl-C vs Intl-S, p = 0.04; (C) UK Indep vs.Intl-C, p = 0.01; (D) UK Indep vs. Intl-S, p<0.01; and (E) US Indep vs. UK Indep, p<0.01.
Mentions: Overall citations from the US papers were slightly higher than UK papers, (15.9 versus 13.6), but the results were not statistically significant. Reviewing data for each country, citation rates for UK articles were significantly higher when the paper was the result of an international collaboration rather than independently produced by the UK. UK-independent articles averaged 10.1 citations while articles listing a UK scientist as the international-corresponding or an international-secondary author averaged 13.8 (p = 0.01) and 18.4 citations (p<0.01), respectively (Figure 4). The increased citation rate of articles by US scientists collaborating with international co-authors was slightly less dramatic, but still statistically significant (p<0.01 for papers on which the US was the corresponding author versus US independent papers). US-independent articles averaged 15.0 citations, and publications listing a US scientist as the international-corresponding and international-secondary author averaged 20.3 and 15.3 citations, respectively. While the citation rate was slightly increased for international papers on which a US scientist was a secondary author, this difference was not found to be statistically significant, indicating that it is not as beneficial for US authors to be secondary contributors. These figures suggest that scientists in both the UK and US produce higher-impact stem cell research when collaborating with foreign counterparts. But US scientists find a more dramatic increase in citation rates when they are corresponding authors and the UK scientists had the highest rate for articles as secondary authors.

Bottom Line: Thus, studying international collaborations in stem cell research elucidates the role of existing international networks in promoting quality research, as well as the effects that disparate national policies might have on research.While this applied to UK authors whether they were corresponding or secondary, this effect was most significant for US authors who were corresponding authors.The findings suggested that national stem cell policy differences and regulatory mechanisms driving international stem cell research in the US and UK did not affect the frequency of international collaborations, or even the countries with which the US and UK most often collaborated.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Science and Technology Policy Program, James A. Baker III Institute for Public Policy, Rice University, Houston, Texas, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
As the scientific community globalizes, it is increasingly important to understand the effects of international collaboration on the quality and quantity of research produced. While it is generally assumed that international collaboration enhances the quality of research, this phenomenon is not well examined. Stem cell research is unique in that it is both politically charged and a research area that often generates international collaborations, making it an ideal case through which to examine international collaborations. Furthermore, with promising medical applications, the research area is dynamic and responsive to a globalizing science environment. Thus, studying international collaborations in stem cell research elucidates the role of existing international networks in promoting quality research, as well as the effects that disparate national policies might have on research. This study examined the impact of collaboration on publication significance in the United States and the United Kingdom, world leaders in stem cell research with disparate policies. We reviewed publications by US and UK authors from 2008, along with their citation rates and the political factors that may have contributed to the number of international collaborations. The data demonstrated that international collaborations significantly increased an article's impact for UK and US investigators. While this applied to UK authors whether they were corresponding or secondary, this effect was most significant for US authors who were corresponding authors. While the UK exhibited a higher proportion of international publications than the US, this difference was consistent with overall trends in international scientific collaboration. The findings suggested that national stem cell policy differences and regulatory mechanisms driving international stem cell research in the US and UK did not affect the frequency of international collaborations, or even the countries with which the US and UK most often collaborated. Geographical and traditional collaborative relationships were the predominate considerations in establishing international collaborations.

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