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Salmonella enterica serotype Virchow associated with human infections in Switzerland: 2004-2009.

Bonalli M, Stephan R, Käppeli U, Cernela N, Adank L, Hächler H - BMC Infect. Dis. (2011)

Bottom Line: We found a high prevalence (62%) of nalidixic acid resistant strains, suggesting an equally high rate of decreased fluoroqionolone susceptibility, whereas intermediate resistance to ciprofloxacin was negligible.Virchow.Nevertheless, the situation in Switzerland coincided with findings in other European countries.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for Food Safety and Hygiene, University of Zurich, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT

Background: Salmonellosis is one of the most important foodborne diseases and a major threat to public health. Salmonella serotype Virchow ranks among the top five serovars in Europe.

Method: A total of 153 strains isolated from different patients from 2004 through 2009 in Switzerland were further characterized by (i) assessing phenotypic antibiotic resistance profiles using the disk diffusion method and (ii) by genotyping using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) after macrorestriction with XbaI in order to evaluate strain relationship.

Results: The relative frequency of S. Virchow among other Salmonella serovars varied between 4th to 8th rank. The annual incidence ranged from 0.45/100'000 in 2004 to 0.40/100'000 in 2009. A total of 48 strains (32%) were resistant to one to 3 antimicrobials, 54 strains (36%) displayed resistance patterns to more than three antibiotics. No trend was identifiable over the years 2004 to 2009. We found a high prevalence (62%) of nalidixic acid resistant strains, suggesting an equally high rate of decreased fluoroqionolone susceptibility, whereas intermediate resistance to ciprofloxacin was negligible. Two strains were extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producers. Analysis of PFGE patterns uncovered a predominant cluster (similarity coefficient above 80%) consisting of 104 of the 153 strains.

Conclusion: The worldwide increase of antibiotic resistances in Salmonella is an emerging public health problem. For Switzerland, no clear trend is identifiable over the years 2004 to 2009 for S. Virchow. Antimicrobial susceptibility and resistance profiles varied considerably within this period. Nevertheless, the situation in Switzerland coincided with findings in other European countries. Genotyping results of this strain collection revealed no evidence for an undetected outbreak within this time period.

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Assigned to the number of antibiotic resistances (1 to 10), for each year, the number of resistant strains are constituted as dark blue, intermediate strains as light blue columns, respectively.
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Figure 1: Assigned to the number of antibiotic resistances (1 to 10), for each year, the number of resistant strains are constituted as dark blue, intermediate strains as light blue columns, respectively.

Mentions: A high prevalence of resistant (resistant to 1 to 3 antimicrobials) and multi drug resistant (MDR = resistant to more than 3 antibiotics) S. Virchow strains was detected. For calculation of percentages, intermediate susceptibility was counted as "susceptible". A total of 48 strains (32%) were resistant and 54 strains (36%) displayed MDR, whereas only 50 strains (33%) showed full susceptibility. There is no clear trend identifiable over the years 2004 to 2009. Antimicrobial susceptibility and resistance profiles varied considerably (Figure 1). Thus in 2008, 67% of all isolates exhibited MDR, and only 19% were susceptible to all antibiotic agents tested. However, in 2009 only 25% of all strains displayed MDR but 57% showed no resistances.


Salmonella enterica serotype Virchow associated with human infections in Switzerland: 2004-2009.

Bonalli M, Stephan R, Käppeli U, Cernela N, Adank L, Hächler H - BMC Infect. Dis. (2011)

Assigned to the number of antibiotic resistances (1 to 10), for each year, the number of resistant strains are constituted as dark blue, intermediate strains as light blue columns, respectively.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3050727&req=5

Figure 1: Assigned to the number of antibiotic resistances (1 to 10), for each year, the number of resistant strains are constituted as dark blue, intermediate strains as light blue columns, respectively.
Mentions: A high prevalence of resistant (resistant to 1 to 3 antimicrobials) and multi drug resistant (MDR = resistant to more than 3 antibiotics) S. Virchow strains was detected. For calculation of percentages, intermediate susceptibility was counted as "susceptible". A total of 48 strains (32%) were resistant and 54 strains (36%) displayed MDR, whereas only 50 strains (33%) showed full susceptibility. There is no clear trend identifiable over the years 2004 to 2009. Antimicrobial susceptibility and resistance profiles varied considerably (Figure 1). Thus in 2008, 67% of all isolates exhibited MDR, and only 19% were susceptible to all antibiotic agents tested. However, in 2009 only 25% of all strains displayed MDR but 57% showed no resistances.

Bottom Line: We found a high prevalence (62%) of nalidixic acid resistant strains, suggesting an equally high rate of decreased fluoroqionolone susceptibility, whereas intermediate resistance to ciprofloxacin was negligible.Virchow.Nevertheless, the situation in Switzerland coincided with findings in other European countries.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for Food Safety and Hygiene, University of Zurich, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT

Background: Salmonellosis is one of the most important foodborne diseases and a major threat to public health. Salmonella serotype Virchow ranks among the top five serovars in Europe.

Method: A total of 153 strains isolated from different patients from 2004 through 2009 in Switzerland were further characterized by (i) assessing phenotypic antibiotic resistance profiles using the disk diffusion method and (ii) by genotyping using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) after macrorestriction with XbaI in order to evaluate strain relationship.

Results: The relative frequency of S. Virchow among other Salmonella serovars varied between 4th to 8th rank. The annual incidence ranged from 0.45/100'000 in 2004 to 0.40/100'000 in 2009. A total of 48 strains (32%) were resistant to one to 3 antimicrobials, 54 strains (36%) displayed resistance patterns to more than three antibiotics. No trend was identifiable over the years 2004 to 2009. We found a high prevalence (62%) of nalidixic acid resistant strains, suggesting an equally high rate of decreased fluoroqionolone susceptibility, whereas intermediate resistance to ciprofloxacin was negligible. Two strains were extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producers. Analysis of PFGE patterns uncovered a predominant cluster (similarity coefficient above 80%) consisting of 104 of the 153 strains.

Conclusion: The worldwide increase of antibiotic resistances in Salmonella is an emerging public health problem. For Switzerland, no clear trend is identifiable over the years 2004 to 2009 for S. Virchow. Antimicrobial susceptibility and resistance profiles varied considerably within this period. Nevertheless, the situation in Switzerland coincided with findings in other European countries. Genotyping results of this strain collection revealed no evidence for an undetected outbreak within this time period.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus